Tuesday, December 31, 2019

The Commercialization Of Flumist ( Medimmune ) The First...

The FDA approved in 2003 the commercialization of FluMist ® (MedImmune) the first influenza vaccine with attenuated virus. This trivalent vaccine is administrated via intranasal spray because the virus replicates in cells lining the nasopharynx [21–23]. Use of live-attenuated vaccine has been limited to individuals two through forty-nine years of age based on a failed efficacy to prevent febrile illness in adults fifty through sixty five years of age [22]. As in the TIV the first step for the vaccine production is the generation of the viral seeds that presents the circulating HA and NA and six internal segments (PA, PB1, PB2, NS, NP, M) from the cold-adapted (ca) A/Ann Arbor/6/60 or ca B/Ann Arbor/1/66 (the master donor virus for LAIV (MDV)) [24, 25]. The manufacture of approved FluMist ® is also based on the injection in embryonated eggs of the reassortant virus and the recovery of the allantoic fluid with the screening of the reassortant that grows well at 25 ºC (cold -adapted) and present restricted growth (ta) at 37-39 ºC and is attenuated (att). The vaccine is tested in the ferret model [22]. Once the reassortant virus is selected, it is then injected in fertilized eggs pathogen free (SPF) that are incubated between 48-72h at 35-37 ºC. The allantoic fluid is recovered and clarified by filtration. The virus is concentrated by ultrafiltration and diluted using a stabilizing agent to obtain the final sucrose and potassium phosphate concentration. The virus harvest is thenShow MoreRelatedMedimmune Case Essay753 Words   |  4 PagesMedImmune Case Study Background MedImmune is dedicated to helping patients live better lives through advances in science and medicine. Hundreds of thousands of patients have benefited from their products, which are designed to treat or prevent infectious diseases, cancer and inflammatory diseases (Wikipedia, 2012). Their extensive research and development efforts are focused on these same areas. MedImmune acquired FluMist when it purchased Aviron in 2002. FluMist is Aviron’s lead product for

Monday, December 23, 2019

Essay on On Feminism and Postmodernism - 3282 Words

On Feminism and Postmodernism It seems fitting that the marriage of feminism and postmodernism is one fraught with both difference and argument. The fact that these disagreements occur within the realm of the intellectual undoubtedly puts a wry smile on the face of either party. While feminism and postmodernism share several characteristics, most notably the deconstruction of the masculinised western ideology, feminism chooses to place itself within the absolutism of the modernist movement. While feminism argues for the continuation of the subject/object dichotomy, aiming largely to reverse the feminine position of the latter to the former, postmodernism would have the modernist movement deconstructed in its entirety, including†¦show more content†¦To begin with, I will attempt to define both feminism and postmodernism. In its simplest form, feminism can be summarized as a movement from the point of, by, and for women (Moi, 1988:9). Extending this further, feminism aims to reverse the power directives of modernist metanarratives while remaining both historically and theoretically a modernist movement (Hekerman 1990:2). Feminism aims to subvert the traditional roles that masculine and feminine play within the modernist dichotomy of subject/object. Historically, women have been prescribed the category of the object. In regards to the masculine subject, this works to further weaken the agency of the object by labeling the object as other. In effect, it was this very labeling of the female as other that was the starting point for contemporary feminist theory (Mascia-Lees Sharpe, 2000:22). By labeling the female as other, the dominant patriarchal discourse of modernism retains its position as subject (2000:22). Feminism aims to reverse the power relations of such modernist binary arguments, allowing those labeled as other the chance to claim the title of subject (2000:23). Nevertheless, the fact remains that modernism is ultimately a patriarchal discourse, a discourse effective only in its entirety and is thus unable to be cropped to the liking of feminists (Hekman, 1990:6). As a result, by remainingShow MoreRelatedBolatito A. Lanre-Abbas, (2013) Feminism In The Postmodernist1173 Words   |  5 PagesBolatito A. Lanre-Abbas, (2013) Feminism in the Postmodernist Age. The Journal of Social, Political, and Economic Studies 28 (3): 355-368, Proquest, Accessed Dec. 27, 2016. Lanre-Abbas Bolatito sees how postmodern feminism and feminism are converging and she looks at how postmodernism is showing up. She explains the Enlightenment era as a time when reason lead to knowledge and this knowledge would lead to technological advances. Postmodernism was used as a critique of the Enlightenment, sayingRead MoreUnder Western Eyes by Mohanty1381 Words   |  6 Pagesdiscourse for constructing â€Å"the third world woman† as a homogeneous â€Å"powerless† and vulnerable group, while women in the North still represent the modern and liberated woman (Mohanty 1991:56). Mohanty is drawing upon theoretical perspectives of postmodernism to understand difference and by that uncover essentialist and Universalist interpretations (Uduyagiri 1995:159). In particular she is drawing upon approaches familiar to Edward Said’s Orientalism and Focault’s approach to discourse, power and knowledgeRead MoreMarxist, Feminist And Postmodernist Ideologies1695 Words   |  7 Pagesa community for people to feel valued (Resnick Wolff, 2013). This is important, as community engagement is one of the key problems with Greensprings. Feminism Though feminism is often seen as something that is only helpful to the females of the population, when it comes to community development, feminism is useful for more than this. Feminism has many different varieties due to the changing times, but these all have similar values: ending gender inequality, roles relating to gender inequalityRead MoreP1 Unit 71069 Words   |  5 Pagessociological perspectives. In this assignment I will be explaining some of the different sociological perspectives in today’s society. The sociological perspectives which I will be explaining will be Functionalism, Marxism, Feminism, and interactionism, Collectivism, Postmodernism and The New Right. The first perspective which I will be explaining will be Functionalism. Functionalism is the view that our society is based onagreed norms and values. A norm is social rules that define correct behaviourRead MoreFeminism And The Postmodern Feminist Theory1596 Words   |  7 Pagesevolution of feminist theory from a modern to a postmodern viewpoint stands to correct the injustices of historically liberal feminism. For some time, grand narratives have governed the ideas of self and gender from a single experience of â€Å"man†. Traditionally, modern feminism aimed to eradicate the hegemonic theory of inferiority by women to the male gender. Postmodern feminism aspires to eliminate categories of gender altogether, for the social construct of gender is considered to disregard the individualRead MoreFeminism And Its Impact On Women1223 Words   |  5 Pages Feminism by definition is the belief that men and women should have equal rights and opportunities. So feminism has a dictionary definition, but when it comes to feminists and feminism there are so many different personal definitions that people and groups hold. Feminism has been around for quite a while. There is evidence of women fighting for their equality for the past twenty-four centuries. If you’re looking for an actual date you might be out of luck. What can be said from The Oxford EnglishRead MoreDevelopment Of Media And Communications Study1481 Words   |  6 Pagesdevelopment of media and communications study and the themes that have helped it to improve during the last century. A persistent concept in this field is equality because theories like Marxism, Cultural Studies, Feminism, Structuralism and Post-structuralism, Subcultural Theory and Postmodernism examined this notion and gave it a meaning in that period of time. Against this background, a central question that motives this paper is: ‘How is equality developed by each ideology and how media manipulateRead MoreAnalysis Of The Of A Salesman And Millers And Williams Plays1102 Words   |  5 PagesThe playwrights we discussed after Tennessee Williams have adapted disparate elements of postmodernism to undermine the modernist assumptions undergirding O’Neill’s, Glaspell’s, Wilder’s, Miller’s and Williams’ plays. I will use Fences, The Hungry Woman, Topdog/Underdog, Glengarry Glen Ross, Six Degrees of Separation, and The Heidi Chronicles to support my claim. To start off, I will come up with working definitions of modernism and post-modernism. Modernism is a movement in culture that seeks toRead MorePostmodernism : Modernism And Postmodernism1549 Words   |  7 PagesModernism and Postmodernism To begin with, to determine the meaning of postmodernism is possible only through the relationship with modernism. Modernism in modern science is understood as a kind of cultural consciousness, which is implemented in the artistic practice of symbolism, expressionism and acmeism. In the socio-historical context, it means the period of modernism in the development of culture from the late nineteenth to mid-twentieth century, that is, from Impressionism to a new novel andRead MoreLiterary Theories And Literary Criticism1318 Words   |  6 Pagesbut contains numerous conflicting and contradictory meanings; all texts have more than one meaning or interpretation. 2. †¢ Catch22 and Othello †¢ One makes their own conclusions on why certain characters act and say the things they say and do. Postmodernism 1. †¢ Characterized by the insecure use of earlier styles and settlements, a mixture of different artistic styles and media as well as an over-all disbelief of theories. †¢ Characterized through being comprehensive in its criticism by broadening

Sunday, December 15, 2019

Health and Safety In a workplace Free Essays

I have chosen two work places to compare in my health and safety investigation. First one is in my school, and my second workplace is in St James medical centre. I wrote up a questionnaire about health and safety to give to both of my workplaces. We will write a custom essay sample on Health and Safety In a workplace or any similar topic only for you Order Now An employee in this place will fill out the questionnaire to see how much they know about their work place. Firstly both my workplaces do know the evacuation procedures in the event of an emergency or a fire. Waste Materials: Each workplace uses different methods of disposing of their waste materials. The workplace has special bins for unsafe waste and the school uses the sinks or black bags because it is usually not harmful waste thrown away if it is then it is disposed appropriately for the type of martial of substance. The workplace recycles all unwanted paper the same as the school has just bought in paper bins to use in each classroom. Is the electricity is used safely: In each workplace there is different electricity safety insurgency firstly in the Post-graduates who have just finished university can also use electronic information for a variety of things as well. Firstly keep in touch with all there friends that they made from university on websites such as Facebook, MySpace and others like that as well as the chat programs e.g. MSN and others. Secondly using it to find jobs and to start to look for cars and houses school the students can use the switches and the equipment under supervision the teacher has control of the safety switches and the circuit breakers in each lab. The workplace has a rule that only qualified elections are allowed to touch the equipment. Prevent fire: Each workplace is smoke free to insure no fires caused by that. The school has gas cut of switches if the fire was caused by gas to stop the building blowing up. No naked flames and put on near chemicals that are flammable. Each workplace has fire alarms. The medical centre insures that all equipment is switched off before leaving building at night. Effects on environment: The medical centre knows the effect in the environment is helping people. In the school Some ways of having to use the electronic information can be: having to buy clothes online delivered to your door, buying plane tickets for anywhere around the world, having your shopping delivered to your door by a local super market e.g. Tesco, Sainsbury and ASDA. there is know effects to the environment because there are such few hazards chemicals and if there was then they would be so few medical centres w that it wouldn’t make any differences. Hazard chemicals: Each work place does use chemicals the medical centre has correct training for individuals that are handling them and also monitoring of using them too. The school has fume cupboards are used in the labs ands correct storage. Each chemical is clearly labelled how bad it is also they have fire proof cabinets. None of my work places use any biological hazards. First aid: In the medical centre there are doctors and qualified nurses in the case of emergency first aid. In the school there is about 7 teachers qualified in first aid, How to cite Health and Safety In a workplace, Papers

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Research Design and Methods

Questions: 1. Problem statement of the study and research gap.2. Definition and description of theories, models, laws, or concepts.3. The phenomena and research questions (qualitative studies).4. Discussing how theories, model, law or concept connects to the research study. Answers: 1. Problem statement of the study and research gap The purpose of this study is to explore the injustice and imprisonment of the African American people. The major problem faced by the black community of America is unnecessary killing, mass incarceration and unfair legal practice. In other word, the problem is apparently more the result of mass incarceration (Belzer Ryan, 2013). However, the situation is not limited to the factors for which black American people are being deprived. The literature on this topic is very less and therefore, people are not aware about the issue. Due to lack of supportive literature, it is difficult for the black American population to fight back such issues. The legal policies and procedures for the black American are seems to be bias, which prevents the population to survive. The previous researches in this topic are limited to the extreme prison sentences and unfair legal practices. However, there is lot of other social practices, which are unethical and harmful for the Asian American black people (Graff, 2015). Lack of research literature is the major gap of this study. In order to aware the community regarding unethical and unfair practice, it is highly important to have supportive literature. On the other hand, education among this community is low, which prevents them from claiming their right. Therefore, it is important to emphasize the other factors that affect lifestyle of the black American people. 2. Definition and description of theories, models, laws, or concepts The theoretical foundation will be based on the history of treatment to the African Americans in United States. Black American people are deprived from the fair legal practice and their facilities. According to the legal policies, long sentence for unnecessary reason was a lethal practice. These practices are not new to the country; it is something historical, which shows how injustice put lives of black American at risk (Harris Edwards, 2016). The way black Americans are treated in the country is nothing but an illegal movement. When it comes to the theories, civil rights infraction would be the most appropriate for evaluating the topic. According to this theory, violation of civil right is illegal in US lawsuit. Implementing this theory would help to identify how the black Americans are being the victim of bias decision (Marable, 2015). Implementation of drug policies was the most important factor to be discussed in this topic. The movement of government for drug dealing was for incarcerating the criminals. However, as per the statistics, the decision of government was bias and therefore, black people of America were incarcerated frequently (Hatzenbuehler et al., 2015). Evaluating this policy and its consequences will help to evaluate the extent in which black Americans were tortured and made to follow unfair law. However, the law was formed in order to control the increased drug offence. The study will discuss these theories, concepts and legal framework in order to present the theoretical foundation. 3. The phenomena and research questions (qualitative studies) The study will be based on qualitative study. In this manner, it will be possible to conduct interview session with the targeted population. Discussing the research questions with the targeted population will emphasize the facts behind the study topic. The sample for the study would be the black American families. Following are the study questions are stated. What are the problems faced by the black American families due to unfair legal practice? To what extent mass incarceration affects black community of America? What are the issues faced by the black community rather than mass incarceration? 4. Discussing how theories, model, law or concept connects to the research study The theories and concepts evaluated in this study are effective to emphasize the previous research result. The research will reviles the social cause behind mass incarceration in United States. The theory of civil right infraction would help to understand how legal framework of America was used against the black community (Gross, 2015). The topic depends on history of treatment, which will help to gather vast information regarding how black American people were victimized by the nation (Belzer Ryan, 2013). The implementation of drug policy shows that how black American people were forcefully incarcerated for long time. The aim of the research is to discuss the social cause behind the issues and therefore, these theories, law and concepts are most effective. As this study is based on qualitative study, it is highly important to access secondary data from authentic resources such as journals and press release. References Belzer, A., Ryan, S. (2013). Defining the problem of practice dissertation: Where's the practice, what's the problem?.Planning and Changing,44(3/4), 195 GRAFF, G. (2015). Redesigning Racial Caste in America via Mass Incarceration.Journal of Psychohistory,43(2)120-133. Gross, K. N. (2015). African American Women, Mass Incarceration, and the Politics of Protection.Journal of American History,102(1), 25-33 Harris, D., Edwards, S. B. (2016). Black Lives Matter Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Keyes, K., Hamilton, A., Uddin, M., Galea, S. (2015). The collateral damage of mass incarceration: Risk of psychiatric morbidity among nonincarcerated residents of high-incarceration neighborhoods.Journal Information,105(1) Marable, M. (2015).How capitalism underdeveloped black America: Problems in race, political economy, and society. Haymarket Books

Friday, November 29, 2019

Bryant Sanchez Essays - Biology, Biotechnology, Stem Cells

Bryant Sanchez 5/23/16 IS STEM CELL RESEARCH MORALLY WRONG? I believe that stem cell research is not morally wrong for many reasons. We as humans has benefited from many lavatory test that potentially risk life's in order to save thousands of others. We wouldn't be as advanced in the medical business if it wasn't for sacrifices. Yes we are potentially killing a human in a stem cell research, but at the same time our scientist and doctors are potentially creating new cures and know more about genes like stated in the article "Embryonic Stem Cell Research Does Too Much Good to Be Evil, Says Janet Rowley" supported though the quote "that induced pluripotent cells could be developed from individuals who have genetic disorders like juvenile diabetes, Parkinson's, and muscular dystrophy. Having stem cells with these defects could dramatically help scientists in their efforts to understand the basic, underlying problems in cells with these mutations". http://www.usnews.com/opinion/articles/2009/03/23/embryonic-stem-cell-research-does-too-much-good-to-be-evil-says-janet-rowley

Monday, November 25, 2019

Free Essays on The Ending Of Huck Finn

Many who read The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn find the ending to be the weakest part of the novel. They argue that it is too coincidental and that Tom’s crazy, quixotic schemes conflict with the seriousness of Jim’s predicament. However, I disagree with that claim, and consider the ending to be one of the most entertaining parts of the novel. Critics of the ending of the novel argue that it is too coincidental, and I can agree somewhat with this claim. The King and the Duke sell Jim to a farmer named Silas Phelps. Huck goes to the farm to try to figure out a way to free Jim, only to discover that the Phelps are the aunt and uncle of Tom Sawyer, who just happens to be arriving to visit them on that very day. It seems a little farfetched, but it’s not the only happenstance that occurs in the novel. For example, while Huck and Jim were still back on Jackson’s Island, they found a house floating by with a dead man in it. Jim quickly covered up his ghastly face to keep Huck from seeing it, but later reveals that the man was none other than Huck’s father, Pap. Another incidence occurs when the King and the Duke attempt to steal the Wilks girls’ money by posing as their never-before-seen uncles. Huck intends to turn them in and run away with Jim, but before he can, the real Wilks brothers show up at the most inconvenient time and ruin his plan. The ending of the novel may be coincidental, but it is definitely not the only part that is. If you are going to criticize the ending because of this, you might as well condemn the whole book. Another reason that some people disapprove of the ending is that Tom’s romantic escape plan is inappropriate considering the gravity of Jim’s situation. It may be inappropriate, but I think that Mark Twain meant it to be that way. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is an absorbing adventure story, a picture of pre-Civil War America, and also a humorous tale rich with satire. To... Free Essays on The Ending Of Huck Finn Free Essays on The Ending Of Huck Finn Many who read The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn find the ending to be the weakest part of the novel. They argue that it is too coincidental and that Tom’s crazy, quixotic schemes conflict with the seriousness of Jim’s predicament. However, I disagree with that claim, and consider the ending to be one of the most entertaining parts of the novel. Critics of the ending of the novel argue that it is too coincidental, and I can agree somewhat with this claim. The King and the Duke sell Jim to a farmer named Silas Phelps. Huck goes to the farm to try to figure out a way to free Jim, only to discover that the Phelps are the aunt and uncle of Tom Sawyer, who just happens to be arriving to visit them on that very day. It seems a little farfetched, but it’s not the only happenstance that occurs in the novel. For example, while Huck and Jim were still back on Jackson’s Island, they found a house floating by with a dead man in it. Jim quickly covered up his ghastly face to keep Huck from seeing it, but later reveals that the man was none other than Huck’s father, Pap. Another incidence occurs when the King and the Duke attempt to steal the Wilks girls’ money by posing as their never-before-seen uncles. Huck intends to turn them in and run away with Jim, but before he can, the real Wilks brothers show up at the most inconvenient time and ruin his plan. The ending of the novel may be coincidental, but it is definitely not the only part that is. If you are going to criticize the ending because of this, you might as well condemn the whole book. Another reason that some people disapprove of the ending is that Tom’s romantic escape plan is inappropriate considering the gravity of Jim’s situation. It may be inappropriate, but I think that Mark Twain meant it to be that way. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is an absorbing adventure story, a picture of pre-Civil War America, and also a humorous tale rich with satire. To...

Friday, November 22, 2019

Implementing Strategy and Managing Change Essay

Implementing Strategy and Managing Change - Essay Example This department cannot be different. Besides, the FRS is better equipped than most other agencies to handle such emergencies, and the public expects nothing less from the FRS, and the pay piper has always dictated the tune. Reasons for Introducing Change Change is inevitable in all human endeavors, these generally has been attributed to several factors such as Globalization, which is the integration of all societies, cultures and regions to become interconnected through a network of communication systems. Financial pressures to meet both incidental and expected obligations, may also force the introduction of needed changes. New demands for products, services etc also are reasons for introduction of changes. The reasons for changes are as numerous as the sands on the sea shore. But for the FRS, the main reason is the expectations of the public. The public expects FRS department to be on the forefront of emergency intervention services. Although section 4 of the FRS Act of 2004 only em powers intervention in fire related incidents and motor accidents, but other emergency situations such building collapse, water accidents, flooding, plane crashes, terrorist attacks and other related incidents that no specialize government agency is responsible for is left to the FRS to handle, and as a matter of principle, the FRS cannot shy way from these tasks, especially when we have the men and equipment to confidently deal with such emergencies. Best practices in Change Management We live in an ever changing environment, products that are in vogue today, quickly become outmoded, system of handling situations that works yesterday, may not work when used tomorrow. All these necessitate the search for best practice in change management. While each organization probably has its best approach to manage change, there are some models that can be regarded as the best approach in change management. The ADKAR model which is an acronym for Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability and Reinfo rcement has consistently proved to work in several organizations where it has been used to introduce change. There full meanings are: Awareness: the need to change; Desire: to participate and support change; Ability: to implement the change on a day to day basis; and Reinforcement: to keep the change in place. ADKAR model approaches Change from two dimensions: the business dimension (vertical) and the people dimension (horizontal). It ensures that each individual makes the needed transition. McKinsey 7 – S model This is a holistic approach to change which collectively determines how the company will operate. There are 7 different factors that are a part of the model: shared values, structure, systems, style, strategy, staff, and skills. All these work together to form the model. Lewin’s Change Management Model This model known as Unfreeze – Change – Refreeze, refers to the 3 stage process of change Lewin described using the changing shape of ice blocks. K otter’s Eight Step Model In summary, this model says that you need to create a sense of urgency, recruit powerful leaders, build a vision and effectively communicate it, remove obstacles, create quick wins, and build on your momentum. If religiously followed will implement change

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Trends in International Business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Trends in International Business - Essay Example Deregulation process has actually allowed global firms to expand and enter into the markets which were traditionally closed. Further, deregulation has created more efficiency and has allowed them to move beyond bureaucracies to implement better and more improved management practices. Deregulation of industries like Airline services has driven the prices down and further intensified the competition. This has therefore benefited common consumers to take advantage of lower prices and more efficient products and services. (Katsioloudes & Hadjidakis, 2012) The fall of Berlin Wall has actually paved the way for the integration of Europe and has allowed Eastern Europe to come out of the Communist influence. The changes in Eastern Europe since the fall has allowed these countries to become part of EU and thus gave access to new markets. International firms have also gained access to cheap labor in Europe besides Consumers getting low priced

Monday, November 18, 2019

Management & organisation behaviour Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Management & organisation behaviour - Essay Example This book reassures that, success is within the reach of any resolute individual, who is willing to make certain minor behavioral modifications. Primarily targeted at ambitious young adults with self - suspecting tendencies, this book provides ample clarity to all career - seekers on how to do well in their lives. Jack Welch, the author of the book "Straight from the Gut" was the Chairman and CEO of General Electric between 1981 and 2001. He used to be called as Neutron Jack and he was also referred as the world's toughest boss. And then Fortune called him "The Manager of the Century." In his twenty year career at the helm of General Electric, Jack Welch defied conventional wisdom and turned an aging behemoth of corporate innovatin. In his remarkable autobiography - the author taes us on the rough-and-tumble ride that has been his remarkable life. Jack Welch's memoir, JACK: Straight from the Gut, is part autobiography and part business theory text. Welch covers his fast trip from General Electric employee to General Electric CEO, his years in the top job (including an in-depth look at the philosophical positions he brought to and developed while holding that position) and the recent search for his replacement - a search that culminated with his retirement in 2001. In the end, however, JACK is less the story of its author and his theories than it is a love letter to the men and women who helped Jack Welch recreate General Electric over the past two decades. "Straight from the Gut" is an energizing book that tells an American dream story of an unconventional businessman who climbed to the top of one of the world's biggest companies and made it even bigger. Along the way, the reader meets a Jack Welch whose clear enthusiasm and affection for those with whom he worked stands in sharp contrast to his "Neutron Jack" reputation. 3. Charan, Larry Bossidy & Ram. Execution. London: Random House Business Books, 2002. Larry Bossidy is one of the world's most acclaimed CEOs, with a track record for delivering results that has few peers. Ram Charan is a legendary advisor to senior executives and boards of directors with unparalleled insight into why some companies are successful and others are not. The result is the book "Execution" people in business need today. One with a high practical framework for closing the gap between results promsed and results delivered. After a long, stellar career with GE, Larry Bossidy became CEO of Allied Signal and trasnformed it into one of the world's most admired companies. Accomplishments like 31 consecutive quarters of earnings-per-share growth of 13% or more don't just happen. They result from consistent practice of the discipline of execution: understanding how to link the three core processes of any business together: people, strategy and operations. The leader's most important job - selecting and appraising people - is one that should never be delegated. As a CEO Larry personally makes the

Saturday, November 16, 2019

A Ratio Analysis Of WH Smith

A Ratio Analysis Of WH Smith As a public limited company majority of the funds available for WH Smith to operate at any point in time is provided by owners in form of share capital and several forms for capital reserves and retained earnings. But for the purpose of this analysis, share capital will be referred to as funds provided by owners, which was  £35million for both 2008 and 2009. However it is important to note that the total equity increased from  £161m in 2008 to  £188m in 2009. The main reason for this was in increase in the retained earnings from  £329m in 2008 to  £365m in 2009. FUNDS PROVIDED BY CREDITORS Non -current liabilities (including trade and other payables, tax obligations, bank overdrafts and borrowings and short-term provisions) added up to  £303m in 2008 and  £281m in 2009, while non-current or long-term liabilities amounted to  £24m in 2008 and  £25m in 2009. Thus, total liabilities and accrued payments reduced from  £327m in 2008 to  £306m in 2009. This is largely due the fact that  £25m bank overdrafts were drawn in 2008 while no overdrafts were drawn in 2009. This means WH Smith is relying mainly on retained earnings and share capital as the major source of cash for the business year. PROFITABLITY Profitability measures the profit margin of the business (WH smith) in a financial year. In this analysis however, the profitability of WH Smith will be calculated and compared for the 2008 and 2009 financial years by relating pre-tax profit as a percentage of sales; and also pre-tax profit as a percentage of fixed asset. This can be represented using the formula below: CONCLUSION WH Smith has improved its profit margin by a small percentage of 0.5% in 2009 from 5.62% to 6.12% as a result of more sales in higher margin categories such as confectionery and books. This means that out of  £100 sales the company made  £5.62p in 2008 and  £6.12p in 2009. Fixed assets generated 4.57% more profit in 2009 than in 2008, which signifies a more efficient use of capital and fixed assets. Thus we can conclude that the company is being managed well despite stiff competition from other large companies such as Borders and the prevailing economic circumstances. GROWTH Turnover Increase total sales reduced from  £1352m in 2008 to  £1340 in 2009 Profit after tax increased from  £59m in 2008 to  £64m in 2009 Total fixed assets reduced from  £247m in 2008 to  £232m in 2009 CONCLUSION From the above point we can conclude that total sales and total fixed assets have reduced considerably between 2008 and 2009, whereas, profit after tax has increased. This signifies that WH Smith is not focused on growth at the present (due to the prevailing economic conditions), rather they are focused on consolidation and profit maximization (which in essential in the survival of any business especially in the short run). This was done by getting rid of unused or unnecessary fixed assets e.g. properties, plants and equipment was reduced from  £177m in 2008 to  £163m in 2009 and utilizing the available resources efficiently. TRADING PERFORMANCE The performance analysis of any company does not carry adequate validity without making reference to the performance of other companies in the same sector, because a comparison of its performance must be measured against that of its competitors. Trading performance is calculated by using the gross profit as a percentage of share holders funds: Earnings per share for 2008 and 2009 were 35.3p and 41.3p respectively. Please refer to page 9 of the financial statement for details. CONCLUSION In an industry where demand and sales are greatly influenced by consumer income and demographics, the performance of WH Smith will depend largely on the marketing strategy and their ability to offer specialized products at lower prices. In 2008 WH smith had a return on share holders fund for 2008 was 47.20% while it was -1.93 for Amazon.co.uk ltd for the same year. At the end of the financial year, earnings per share went up 17% from 35.3p to 41.3p LIQUIDITY Current ratio also known as the working capital ratio measures the amount of cash available to a business in form of stock and creditors and is referred to as the working capital. WH Smith has been able to increase its level of liquidity from 0.8 in 2008 to 0.93 in 2009. This increase could be attributed to an increase in the bank balance from  £22m in 2008 to 47m in 2009 however, not a large proportion of resources were tied up in stock during the same period as inventories only increased by  £4m from  £147m in 2008 to  £151m in 2009. However, WH Smith was able to increase its ability to meet short-term obligations and settlement of a major proportion of their current liabilities. It is important to note however that the ratio of current assets to current liabilities is still less than 1, this means that WH Smith still needs to improve on these figures further by reducing the total current liabilities or increasing their total current assets. Although it is widely believed that a reasonable current ratio should fall between 1.5:1 and 2:1, given the prevailing economic conditions in this period, we can safely conclude that WH Smith is doing exceptionally well. Also, the liquid ratio reveals that a large amount of resources are tied up in liquid form, which could affect the companys performance in the long run if the sales is not improved upon. SAFETY Gearing Gearing measures the relationship between a companys capital employed and its long time liabilities. It gives us an idea of any companys ability to pay back its long term liabilities. However, the acceptable gearing ratio for most companies is 50%, but the lesser the better. It is calculated as follows: WH Smith has been able to reduce the gearing of the business 1.81% from 14.90% to 13.29% and the gearing ratio for both 2008 and 2009 is almost at zero, this means that WH Smiths propensity to generate profit and returns on capital employed is high. Therefore, shareholders can expect some dividend at the end of the business year. Also, the business will not have to struggle to service long term liabilities (e.g. loans with interest) especially in bad years. EFFICIENCY This is also known as return on capital employed and is used to measure how effective a business has used its available resources to generate profit within a certain period. It is usually represented by the formula below: It can be deduced from the above figures that WH Smith has been able to use their fixed assets more efficiently in 2009 than in 2008 by 3.3%, despite the reduction in the total amount from  £247m to  £232m. Although the efficiency of the total assets has hardly improved in the same period, with the difference being 0.7%, the most noticeable increase in efficiency is that of fixed assets which has increased by 3.3%. CONCLUSION In the year ending 31 August 2009, WH Smith recorded a total (including non-book sales) turnover of  £1,340m which was lower than  £1,352m recorded in the previous year. Pre-tax profit increased from  £76m in 2008 to  £82m in 2009. And also, earnings per share increased from 35.3p in 2008 to 41.3p in 2009 Total sales reduced to  £1,340m from  £1,352m in 2008 (where like for like sales dropped 5%, travel sales grew by 8% and high street sales also dropped by 5%). Whereas, WH Smith has improved its profit margin by 0.5% in 2009 from 5.62% to 6.12%. This improvement in gross profit margin was enhanced by tight cost control and a reduction of the total fixed assets. WH Smith has also been able to increase its level of liquidity from 0.8 in 2008 to 0.93 in 2009. This increase could be attributed to an increase in the bank balance from  £22m in 2008 to 47m in 2009. Although a substantial amount is still tied up in stock, which could be a problem in the future. Therefore, WH Smith needs to come up with sale strategies that will quickly clear up the stock. In 2009 however, WH Smith was able to increase its ability to meet short-term obligations and settlement of a major proportion of their current liabilities. Although, WH Smith still needs to improve on these figures further by reducing the total current liabilities or increasing their total current assets. WH Smiths propensity to generate profit and returns on capital employed is very high with gearing being reduced by 1.81% from 14.90% to 13.29%, and also, the gearing ratio for both 2008 and 2009 is almost at zero, this means that shareholders can expect some dividend at the end of the business year even in bad years (Dividend per share increased to 16.7p in 2009). Also, the business will not have to struggle to service long term liabilities (e.g. loans with interest) especially in bad years. Finally it is worthy of note that WH Smith has been able to employ their fixed assets more efficiently in 2009 than in 2008 by 3.3%, despite the reduction in the total amount from  £247m to  £232m. RECOMMENDATIONS WH Smith is doing very well given their financial performance in the past year despite the prevailing economic circumstances. It is important to note that a large proportion of WH Smiths profit in the 2009 financial year was generated from the travel business (which includes outlets in train stations, airports, highway service stations etc.) where total sales increased by 8% driven mainly by new business wins and acquisitions. Therefore, WH Smith should focus on setting up more travel shops in areas not yet covered. Competition to sell the highest number of bestsellers is tough, as high-street bookshops are being undercut on price by supermarkets and online booksellers. Publishers appear to be offering supermarkets and online booksellers the highest discounts on their highest-profile books, allowing lower prices to be offered in these outlets. -Isla Gower ed. 2008, marketing report, pg1 Another important area that WH Smith should focus on is the online book sales, which makes companies like Amazon.co.uk ltd a major competitor. Although WH Smith already sells books online, there should be more marketing and promotion in this area, which would eventually lead to a market expansion if harnessed properly. Also, the digitization of books through the use of e-books has made remote downloads and print-on-demand possible, and this has remarkably reduced the cost of production and can easily put booksellers such as WH Smith out of business.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Toyotas Secret :: essays research papers

If you enter the lobby of Toyota’s headquarters in Japan, you will see two small portraits and one big one hanging there. The two small ones show the founder and the current chairman of the company. The large portrait shows an American. It is Dr. Edward Deming. Who is Edward Deming you might ask? And indeed who is he? But it’s a long story and one cannot explain who Edward Demings is without involving characters like the Japanese, the Americans and the Toyota Company. So here goes†¦ Long Ago and Far Away†¦ World War II had barely ended, the Japanese were left with a devastated country, ruins that were previously houses and a battered economy. But there was something left that helped them overcome all this destruction. They did not sit and lament their fates but began thinking†¦where do we go from here and to get there what do we need to do? Factories began production again firstly to supply all the basic necessities and after around 15 years when everyone had the basic goods they needed, they turned their energies towards overcoming the surplus of imports. Japan needed to offer something more in their goods if they had to succeed on foreign shores.... The Japanese car manufacturers namely Toyota wanted to start operations in America. That was all very well. But how could they make the Americans buy their cars rather than local ones. Enter Dr. Edward Demings and hey presto! They had the secret recipe!   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The man who according to his biographer Rafeel Agumayo(1) is the American who taught Japan what quality management is. Dr. Edwards Deming was a physicist specialized in the field of statistics and worked in United States Bureau of Census. His greatest contribution on the evaluation of statistical methods for ensuring the quality of census assessment established him as a leader in the field of Total Quality Management. In fact he is considered as the "Guru" of Total Quality Management. Deming also enunciated 14 principles for quality management which include innovation, the philosophy of quality to be inculcated in all individuals, appropriate and complete supervision, absence of fear and openness, ensuring quality from design through to maintenance, work standards in production, training of every worker in statistical methods, retraining people to new skills and so on. The world saw Toyota take over America by storm, they offered better, faster, more comfortable and more efficient cars and Americans came to buy cars from them in droves.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Arg Container Terminal

CARIBBEAN MARITIME INSTITUTE Marine Terminal Operations ARJ Container Terminal Prepared by: Revalino Bennett, Andrew Gibson, Jenoir Dick, Oshane Polson, Tandra Morris, Jodian Braham For: Mr. Reyon McIntyre Due Date: November 15th, 2012 Table of Contents Section Page Section A- GeneralIntroduction IV A-2 ARG Air layout 1-2 A-3 Abbreviations A-4 Working Hrs A-5 Entry Passes A-6 General Customs Formalities Section B- Landside Operations B-1 Gate Operations B-2 Terminal Access B-3 Exit Validation B-4 Checking Activity at Gate B-5 Inter Terminal Transport B-6 Customs Inspection Section C- Vessel Operation C-1 Marine Requirements C-101 Working Hrs C-102 Vessel Arrival NoticeC-103 Documents Required C-104 Establishing Communication C-105 Pilotage C- 2 Berth and Labour Planning C-201 Pro-forma Vessel Schedules C-202 Advance Schedules C-203 Initial Vessel Call Information C-204 Detailed Vessel Call Information C-205 Communication on the â€Å"Port of Salalah Game Plan† C-206 Calls O utside Pro-forma C-207 Vessel Connections C-208 Technical Information on the Vessel C-209 Notice of Readiness Section D- Load and Discharge Operation D-1 General D-101 Gantry Crane Capacity D-102 Lashing D-103 Hatch Cover Moves and Restows D-104 Use of Special Equipment D-105 Bay Planning and Stability CalculationsD-106 Definition of Loading/Discharging of Containers D-107 Reporting D-108 Storage D-109 Data Amendment D-2 Discharge Operation D-201 Vessel Profile Information D-202 Discharge List Information D-203 Checking Activity During Discharge (Tally) D-204 Reporting D-205 Short-landed Container D-206 Over-Landed Container D-3 Load Operation D-301 Pre-Plan D-302 Load List Information D-303 Re-Nomination of Cargo D-304 Pro-Forma Cargo Deadline D-305 Checking Activity during Load (Tally) D-306 Reporting D-307 Short-Shipped Container D-308 Over-Shipped Container D-4 Yard Inventory D-5 Vessel Bunkering, Repair, and Supply of ProvisionSection E- Break Bulk and Over Dimensional Cargo E- 1 Requirements E-2 Restrictions F- Direct Deliveries G- Dangerous Cargo H- Leakage/Spillage of Cargo I- Container Freight Station Activities J- Weighbridge K- Miscellaneous Services L- Damage and Claims L-01 Damage to Line’s Equipment (Without Prejudice) L-02 Damage to Line’s Vessel (Without Prejudice) L-03 Damage Caused by Third Parties L-04 Damage to Port Facilities/Equipment/Personnel M – Longstanding Cargo N- Reefer Containers Section O- Port Safety and Security O01 Rules & Regulations O02 International Ship and Port Security (ISPS) O02. ISPS Measures by Port of Salalah O02. 2 ISPS Requirements for the Line O03 X-Ray Inspection of Containers Introduction The competition among container ports continues to increase because of di? erentiating factors such as services, location and performance. These factors make up some of the major key selection criterias international shipping companies consider when selecting a transshipment port. With that in mind we the ow ners and managers at ARJ Container Terminal will be trying to attract carriers with our automating handling equipment, the speeding up various services, and providing the most current information on the ? w of containers. At the same time, however, we will reduce costs by utilizing our resources e? ciently, including human resources, berths, container, yards, quay cranes, and various yard equipment. Our key and optimum advantage will be our location. This location in Little Bay, Little London Westmorland Jamaica West Indies will have the sufficient harbor water depth and dock space that will make it possible to facilitate docking of up to a Super-Panamax vessel.Dredging will not be required to accommodate these large draft vessels, hence no disturbance or depletion of any marine wildlife sanctuaries on the harbour floor or natural habitat will be caused. We and our management team are greatly pleased by this because outside of us wanting to create an optimal high efficiency containe r terminal, we also want to know that it is done with little or no impact on the surrounding environment and wildlife. ARJ Container Terminal location will be 25 minutes from the capital city of Savanna La Mar and 5 minutes from the A2 South Coast Highway.This will aid greatly in our multimodal transportation planning for both our clients and ourselves and also compliment positively on the domestic distribution side of our company. We are a limited liability company that specialises in container and general cargo handling for transshipment and domestic purposes. The company is owned by Shiek Revalino Bennet, Shiek Andre Gibson and Shiek Jenoir Dick and is manage by our seniors directors Oshane Polson, Tandra Morris and Jodian Braham The objective of ARJ is to provide integrated cargo service solutions for shipping companies worldwide.Due to our highly competent managers, the company will be able to substantially increase its cargo turnover and ensure regular cargo flow, and to compl iment our effectiveness we will be the only terminal on the island of Jamaica with Sea-Rail transshipment operations. This will enhance our domestic function and in turn bringing first class service to the developing nation of Jamaica. Our developed terminal infrastructure, cargo handling technologies and modern equipment will definitely ensure ARJ’s competitiveness and peak position in the transit market.We will offer value-added services including customs operations, freight forwarding and logistics solutions so this can basically be a one stop shop for our customers/clients. ARJ will employ 111 qualified specialists in different fields to ensure the company’s operational efficiency and productivity level is on par with the major terminals around the world and even exceed if possible. We are predicting from global feedback that our total container flow for 2013 will be approximately 750,000 TEU. ARJ Air Layout Infrastructure: Berth: Length – 290 m Draught â₠¬â€œ 15 m Warehouse area: 16,310 m2Open-air storage area: 120,800 m2 Technical equipment: Quay cranes at the vessel: – STS crane – Conventional quay crane – Mobile harbor crane For container transfer (horizontal transport): – SC (max. stacking capability: 1-over-3-high) – Reachstacker – Terminal tractor with trailer (so-called Tractor-Trailer Unit (TTU)) – Multi-trailer (terminal tractors with several trailers) – Empty/loaded container handler – Shuttle Carrier (ShC stacking capability: 1-over-1-high) – Automated Guided Vehicles (AGV) – Automated SC (max. stacking capability: 1-over-2-high) For container transport and stacking within the yard: SC – Rubber-Tyred Gantry crane (RTG crane) – Rail-Mounted Gantry crane (RMG crane) – Container handler (like reachstacker or top lifter) – OverHead Bridge crane (OHB crane) For the landside operation: – SC – RTG crane – RMG crane – Reachstacker – TTU At the inland navigation vessel: – STS crane – Conventional quay crane – Mobile harbor crane The STS crane drops down containers on TTU that will transport the containers to the stacking area where the boxes are stacked by reach stackers (see Figure 1. 1) or forklift trucks fitted with appropriate spreader frames for container top or side lifting.Due to their versatility in operation, reach stackers are the best choice for our multi-purpose terminal as they are easy to handle, can be used for stacking in the yard, loading and unloading of TTUs, road trucks and rail cars on first rail. Including our landside operation, an estimate of 3–4 reachstackers and 4–5 TTUs are required per STS crane. The specific number of TTUs in particular will depend on the distance between the berth and the stacking area of the respective operation. The TTUs are used for the transport of the containers between the vessel and the container yard.Figure 1. 1- Reachstackers and TTU operation A storage capacity of approx. 350 TEU per hectare for 3-high stacking and 500 TEU per hectare for 4-high stacking are common figures for our type of yard equipment. The maximum stacking height is 5, container blocks can be kept 4-deep due to second row access. In case of relocation of capacities reachstackers are easily transported to another terminal or used for other cargo handling and because of their easy transportation between terminals reachstackers can be used to cover temporary requirements. Straddle Carrier System:The STS crane will place containers onto the apron from where the SCs transport them to the stacking yard (see Figure 1. 2 and Figure 1. 3) and stack the containers. The SCs are independent from any other equipment and are able to perform all the different handling operations: transport, stacking and the loading/unloading of trucks and rail cars (see Figure 1. 3). SC systems are the optimal system for large size terminals when high flexibility in the yard and accessibility of the boxes are required and thay make it easy to alter the layout of the terminal.A storage capacity of approx. 500 TEU per hectare stacking 2-high (3-high SC) and 750 TEU per hectare stacking 3-high (4-high SC) can be achieved. The maximum stacking height is 4-high. Including landside operation, an estimate of 4–5 SCs are required per STS crane – without considering specific conditions. The system will be supported by container handlers stacking MT boxes and/or RMGs for container handling in the rail yard. Figure 1. 2 Pure SC system Figure 1. 3 SC operations: Container transport and stacking and Loading / unloading of rail cars System advantages SC’s are able to cover all kinds of horizontal and vertical transports being necessary to perform container moves from the landside terminal interfaces (including truck handling and rail operation) via the container yard to handover positions be low the STS cranes at quayside (and vice versa). †¢ the containers can be dropped on the ground so that no (or only short) waiting times for handling equipment occur. This kind of container handover enables STS cranes to operate with a high productivity while using a comparatively low number of SCs per crane. high number of concurrent container movements †¢ the breakdown of one SC has a comparatively low impact on the total handling process †¢ compared to the systems with TTUs the labor costs are lower due to the smaller number of vehicles †¢ no disturbance of the operation by trucks because these are loaded/unloaded outside the stacking yard †¢ the system is flexible to changes based on operational requirements and terminal layouts can be simply altered as SCs can be easily moved within the terminal since no pre-set routes or tracks are needed Rubber-Tyred Gantry Crane System with Tractor-Trailer UnitsThe STS gantry crane places the container on a TTU unit that transports the container to the storage area where the RTG crane stacks the containers in long blocks (see Figure 1. 4). The RTG can be used for TTUs and road trucks as well. The size and structure of the RTG crane is determined according to the requirements of the terminal operator. The system has a very high stacking density because of the high stacking capability and the block stacking. Long traveling distances on the terminal are less problematic as TTUs transport the containers.RTG cranes will also be effectively used for the handling of containers on road trucks or rail cars. According to manufacturers, up to four tracks can be covered and containers can be stored at the side of the rail tracks. They can be allocated from the yard to the landside operation and vice versa, if necessary. Including landside operation 2–3 RTGs and 4–5 TTUss (depending on the distance between berth and stacking area) are required per STS crane. They stack the container in blocks 1-over-4- to -7-high and 5 to 8 container rows plus 1 lane for container handover laneFigure 1. 4 RTG cranes and TTUs in the stacking yard, rail yard operation by RMGs System advantages †¢ low space requirement in the stacking area because of the high storage capacity in a small area (high stacking density). The containers can be stacked up to 8- high (i. e. 1-over-7-high)1 without spacing for traveling lanes between the rows. †¢ relatively high flexibility as the RTGs can be transported to other storage blocks Rail-Mounted Gantry Crane System These cranes are mounted on fixed rail tracks with a cantilever outside the portal of cranes (see Figure 1. ). Figure 1. 5 RMG cranes with TTUs System advantages †¢ RMGs generally stack higher and span wider, with up to 1-over-7-high and 12 containers wide †¢Stacking density of the yard is higher with RMG cranes and can exceed 1,000 TEU per hectare (stacking 4-high) Automated Guided Vehicles The horizontal transport of the containers will be performed with AGVs. (See Figure 1. 6). The handover positions for trucks are located at the top-end of the stacking blocks. The stacking of the containers is usually carried out by automated RMGs.The ShC is designed primarily to convey containers between the ships’s side and container stacks served by RMG cranes. As it is able to stack containers two high it will also be used for loading and unloading road trucks and rail cars. The shuttle carrier is an alternative aim at more efficiency to handle the container transport between the stacks and the quay cranes, and still maintain high density stacking by RTG or RMG yard cranes. Figure 1. 6 RMG cranes with AGVs System advantages †¢ very low labor costs because of automation high system availability †¢ very high productivity of horizontal transport The layout and choice of our equipment and their interface will depend on, amongst others, the †¢ number of containers to be handled, †¢ availa ble area †¢ type of hinterland transport. The combination of our terminal equipment to be used will depend on if they are †¢ at the vessel, †¢ for transport tasks between quay and stacking yard ( or reverse) †¢ for container stacking, †¢ for transport from stacking yard to and from the landside operation area †¢ for landside operation itselfOperational areas: 1. The area between quay wall and container yard 2. container yard 3. terminal area of landside operations example the gate, parking, office buildings, customs facilities etc The container yard will be an intermediate storage facility meaning the containers will remain from a couple of hours to some weeks. There are different possibilities for the layout of our intermediate storage area. We may have stacking area which is compact, low ground area consuming stack without spacing known as block stack (see Figure 2. 1).In cases like these, yard gantry cranes will be used for the stacking of containers being delivered by terminal equipment of horizontal transport. An alternative is the linear stack (see Figure 2. 2) where the containers are stacked by Straddle Carriers (SC). This type of stacking will have spacing between the container rows and relatively wide terminal roads. Export and import containers will be segregated within the yard area and piled up to 4 containers high and pre-sorted for the various hinterland transport modes. Figure 2. 1 block stacking Figure 2. 2 linear stackingOperational procedures applicable for the handling of containers and container vessels calling at the ARJ Container Terminal Section A – General A-1 Abbreviations COD Change of Destination EDI Electronic Data Interchange EIR Equipment Interchange Report ETC Expected Time of Completion OOG Out of Gauge POD Port of Discharge SSDR Stevedore Ship Damage Report TOS Terminal Operating System A-2 Working Hrs The terminal operates round the clock on the following schedule: Terminal Operations 24 h rs except declared public holidaysOffice Administration 07:00 hrs to 15:30 hrs Monday to Friday except declared public holidays Gate Operations 08:00 hrs to 16:00 hrs Friday except declared public holidays Overtime rates as per Tariff will apply for all activities carried out on declared public holidays. Containers can be received at or released from the gate outside the working hrs shown above at no additional charge (except on public holidays), but prior notice should be given to the Port to ensure the Gate is staffed appropriately. A-3 Entry Passes Permanent entry passes are issued at the discretion of the Sr.Manager. Application forms are available at the main reception of the Container Terminal Administration Building. Permanent entry passes are valid for one year. Monthly & Daily entry passes are issued subject to proof of legitimate business in the terminal. Vehicle entry permits are selectively issued on providing vehicle registration and registration papers. A-4 General Cus toms Formalities The shipping line bears full responsibility for all Customs clearance formalities concerning their cargo. Section B – Landside Operations B-1 Terminal AccessARJ Container Terminal controls access of truckers to the terminal. A trucker is only allowed on the terminal after full identification of the trucker and registration of the terminal visit. Containers are only allowed onto the terminal on instruction of the shipping line that has to provide an acceptance notification to ARJ Gate Department before the container arrives at the gate. Information required will be as follows: †¢ Container ID and Booking No. †¢ Equipment Size/Type †¢ Outbound Vessel / Voyage and POD †¢ IMO / Reefer / OOG When delivering the container the trucker has to provide Container No. nd Booking No. to gate staff. All full containers will be gated in subject to clearance of Customs formalities by the shipping line. B-2 Exit Validation ARJ performs exit validation. Con tainers are only allowed to leave the terminal upon release instructions received from the shipping line, provided the customs department does not restrict the container from leaving the terminal. The shipping line must provide ARJ Gate Department with a hard copy of the release instruction. Information required will be as follows: †¢ Container ID †¢ Receiving Party Identification or Reference Number Date Restrictions if any Full containers will be allowed to depart the terminal only subject to completion of all customs formalities by the shipping line and full payment of port charges. B-3 Checking Activity at Gate For any containers entering or leaving the gate, the Port will perform a visual check and any deviations from provided data or anomalies are documented and reported to the shipping line. The check includes the following: †¢ Container ID †¢ Equipment size/type †¢ Visual damage (external) †¢ Visual damage (internal – empty containers onl y) †¢ Presence of SealIf any damage to a container is noticed at the gate, then a reference to this will be made on the gate ticket issued. Any further checking required e. g. Seal number, or further action like placing of seal or placard is chargeable as per Tariff. B-5 Customs Inspection In case ROP orders customs inspection of a container, shipping line should advise the port who will move the container to the customs inspection area and unstuff the cargo as per ROP requirement and subsequently restuff the cargo in the container, such operation to be charged as per Tariff.Section C – Vessel Operation Information on vessels calling ARJ to discharge or load containers is to be provided to ARJ planning department by the shipping line or its designated representatives. The Line shall nominate a focal point that can be reached 24 hrs a day by ARJ Planning and Operations Departments in case any issues concerning Vessel Planning / Operation need to be verified. C-1 Vessel Ar rival Notice The owner, ship’s agents or the master of the ship shall send the arrival notice to the Harbour Master 48 hrs before arrival to the Port.He should also inform the Harbour Master with the details of the Ship, its cargo, any hazardous cargo, cases of illness and any defects which affects the vessel manoeuvrability. C-1. 1 Documents Required †¢ Insurance cover for third party liabilities, wreck removal and oil pollution †¢ Ship’s registration certificate †¢ Port clearance certificate from last port of call †¢ ISPS Certificate †¢ Class Certificate C-1. 2 Establishing Communication The master of the ship shall establish communication with The Port Authority and request permission to enter the port limits, at least four hrs prior to the estimated time of arrival.The Port Authority will arrange the services of Pilotage, Tugs and Mooring Gang(s), and coordinate with ARJ Terminal Operations to have the gantry cranes and labour gangs ready. Normally cargo operations start upon lowering of the gangway from the vessel. C-1. 3 Pilotage Pilotage services are available round the clock. Activation time for marine services is 30 minutes. C- 2 Berth and Labour Planning Pro-forma vessel schedules and move counts declared by the l shipping lines form the basis for berth and stevedore / labour planning in the Quay Wall Schedule.Daily berth planning will also include: †¢ Initial vessel call information †¢ Detailed vessel call information for initial and pro-forma calls †¢ Availability of quay-wall space †¢ Vessel connections Based on this information ARJ Planning Department will prepare the day plan C-2. 1 Pro-forma Vessel Schedules Vessel string pro-forma berth windows are negotiated between the shipping line and ARJ. Berth windows are related to an estimated number of container lifts and the required day and time of the week for the vessel operation.Unless otherwise agreed, vessels will be planned for arrival and departure at pro-forma berth window. Vessels arriving within pro-forma always have priority over vessels out of pro-forma or incidental vessel calls. If it concerns vessels of the same shipping line only, this shipping line may set its own priorities, provided that it does not impact the berth windows of other Shipping lines. C-2. 2 Advance Schedules The shipping line will provide to ARJ Planning Department future projected schedules every week, from current date to 30 days in advance.Information required will be as follows: †¢ Vessel Name †¢ Inbound / Outbound Voyage †¢ ETA / ETD †¢ Service C-2. 3 Initial Vessel Call Information The shipping line is responsible for providing initial vessel call information at least 7 work-days prior to the estimated vessel arrival date to ARJ Planning Department. Information required will be as follows: †¢ Vessel Name †¢ Call Sign †¢ Inbound / Outbound Voyage †¢ ETA / ETD †¢ LOA †¢ Previous Por t of Call †¢ Next Port of Call †¢ Estimated Move Count †¢ Vessel Service †¢ Vessel Operator C-2. 4 Detailed Vessel Call InformationDetailed information is to be provided to ARJ Planning Department for line haul vessels at least 48 hrs and for all other vessels at least 24 hrs prior arrival at the terminal. Information required will be as follows: †¢ Vessel Name †¢ ETA †¢ Required ETD †¢ Expected Move Count, split as: – Total number of discharge / load moves – OOG discharge / load moves – Live reefer discharge / load moves – Empty container discharge / load moves – IMO class 1 & 7 discharge / load moves – Detailed information of any Break Bulk Cargo Upon receipt of this information, ARJ will undertake the final berth and labour planning.In case of required changes in the requested ETA / ETD, ARG Planning Department will contact the shipping line to create the best workable solution. The Port has a minim um billing per vessel call for loading/discharging of containers as per Tariff. Vessels are expected to use the Port's shore gantry cranes. Any movement or use of the vessel's gear while alongside is strictly subject to prior approval from the Port. C-2. 5 Communication on the ARJ Day Plan The Line will submit daily ETA update for their vessels latest at 10:00 hrs every day. ARJ will in turn revert with a Day Plan latest at 15:00 hrs.In order to provide flexibility to our customers, the Day Plan is always considered subject to change. Any agreements that are verbal in nature or those made after office hrs need to be confirmed in writing immediately on opening of the next working day. C-2. 7 Vessel Connections Connections other than those agreed to in the pro-forma schedule, have to form part of the Day Plan negotiations and these have to be announced to ARJ Planning Department preferably 48 hrs, but at least 24 hrs before ETA to ensure proper priority setting for the quay-wall. C-2. 8 Technical Information on the VesselFor vessels calling ARJ Container Terminal for the first time or in case of changes to the previously supplied vessel information the shipping line needs to supply ARJ Planning Department with technical information on the vessel at least 72 hrs before arrival. Technical information on the vessel consists of: †¢ Vessel Name †¢ Call Sign †¢ LOA †¢ Container Layout †¢ Lashing Plan †¢ Type of Twist Locks †¢ Type of Hatch Covers †¢ Mooring Restrictions (port / starboard side) †¢ Vessel Capacity in TEU †¢ Vessel Profile / NSD file (if available) †¢ Other peculiarities relevant to the Vessel StowageFurther details subject to planning or operational needs have to be provided upon request. C-2. 9 Notice of Readiness The Port Authority will issue the vessel with a ‘Notice of Readiness' at least 2 hrs prior to the estimated completion of cargo operations, and provided vessel confirms readiness to sail upon cargo completion The Port Authority will arrange to book Pilot, Tugs and unmooring gang(s). Section D – Load and Discharge Operation D-1 General D-1. 1 Gantry Crane Capacity Port provides shore-side gantry cranes with minimum capacity of 40 tons under the spreader and there are cranes with up to 65 tons capacity.D-1. 2 Lashing The Port Tariff for loading and discharging of containers includes the cost of lashing and unlashing of containers on board the vessel. Lashing equipment is to be provided by the shipping line. The Port will maintain safe housekeeping of lashing material at all times and handle all lashing gear in a controlled manner and in accordance with accepted safety standards. The Port will also handle discharging and loading of lashing material if required at no additional charge. D-1. 3 Hatch Cover Moves and Restows Hatch Cover moves and restows are chargeable as per tariff. D-1. 4 Use of Special EquipmentUse of special equipment for loading/unloading eg slings, frames etc is chargeable as per tariff on per lift basis. D-1. 5 Bay Planning and Stability Calculations The Port will carry out Bay Planning and unloading / sequence of containers in accordance with the information provided by the shipping line as part of its normal service. Container stow plans prepared by the Port are subject to the final confirmation by the Master of the vessel. The Port is responsible for providing information to the shipping line required for stability and lashing calculations, but the Port is not responsible for making these calculations.D-1. 6 Definition of Loading/Discharging of Containers Loading / discharging of containers is the handling by the Port of the containers between the stowage position onboard the vessel and the position in the container yard of the Port. No additional shiftings made based on any change in the information or additional information provided by the shipping line are included, and such additional shiftings made are cha rgeable as per tariff. Import / export containers pay truck loading / unloading charge as per tariff. D-1. 7 ReportingThe Port makes reports as per shipping line's required format and frequency to the operator of the vessel for all containers loaded/discharged and in case of vessels loading containers belonging to more than one shipping line, to each shipping line for their containers. D-1. 8 Storage Containers are stored in the Container Yard of the Port subject to the applicable Freetime and Container Storage rates as per Tariff. D-1. 9 Data Amendment Data Amendment charges as per Tariff apply in case the discharge and / or load lists are not provided in time to the Port, or in case there is any change to the information provided.Any Data Amendment that involves containers being shifted from one stack to another will incur shifting charges in addition as per Tariff. D-2 Discharge Operation D-2. 1 Vessel Profile Information The shipping line is responsible for communicating the dis charge, re-stow and remain-on-board instructions at least 24 hrs prior to the arrival of the vessel to ARJ Planning Department. For vessels with less than 24 hrs steaming time from the previous port, these details are to be provided as soon as information becomes available. The Bay-plan of the arriving vessel is to be sent via EDI message.D-2. 2 Discharge List Information The discharge list is to be provided to ARG Planning Department 24 hrs prior arrival for mother vessels and 18 hrs prior arrival for feeder vessels. Exceptions will be made on a case to case basis for vessels with lesser time as compared to these deadlines in which case load instructions have to be made available as soon as possible. D-2. 3 Checking Activity During Discharge (Tally) During the discharge process, ARJ will perform a visual check and any deviations from provided data or anomalies are documented and reported to the Line.This check also covers any restows. The check includes the following: †¢ Conta iner ID †¢ Equipment Size / Type †¢ Visual Damage †¢ Presence of seal (On request) Any further checking required eg Seal number, CSC plate validity etc or further action like placing of seal or placard is chargeable as per Tariff. D-2. 5 Short-landed Container When a container is reported short-landed, ARJ Planning Department will contact the Line. Information will be provided as follows: †¢ Container ID †¢ Vessel / Voyage †¢ Stowage position stated for the container †¢ Reasons for Short-LandingContainer Terminal Operational Guidelines Issued 1 D-2. 6 Over-Landed Container When a container(s) is reported as over-landed, ARJ Planning Department will contact the vessel operator. Information will be provided as follows: †¢ Container ID †¢ Seal Number †¢ Status (full / empty) †¢ Equipment Type / Size †¢ Stowage Position the container was found in †¢ IMO / Reefer information as far as possible †¢ Reasons for Over-landi ng The shipping line will investigate ownership / operator of the container and decide whether the container must be re-stowed or remain discharged.The shipping line will supply full container details to ARJ Planning Department and advise further action before vessel departure. D-3. 3 Re-Nomination of Cargo In the event of rollover of cargo for whatever reason, the Line is expected, within 12 hrs of vessel departure, to communicate to ARJ Planning Department, the name of the new vessel which will load the cargo. Every such ‘renomination' incurs a charge as per Tariff. D-3. 4 Pro-Forma Cargo Deadline In principle, all containers must be in the yard upon arrival of the vessel in order to maintain vessel schedule integrity and ensure efficient stevedore operations.The following will be taken into account: †¢ Vessel schedule reliability / integrity should not be affected †¢ Berth / Crane productivity should not be unduly impacted †¢ Line, Port and Customs requiremen ts The shipping line is responsible for ensuring that all cargo is available for loading prior vessel arrival. Same applies to cargo on hold or any other cargo released by the shipping line but not ready for loading due to any particular reason. D-3. 5 Checking Activity during Load (Tally) During the load process, ARJ will perform a visual check and any discrepancies or anomalies are documented and reported to the shipping line.This check includes restows. The check includes the following: †¢ Stowage Position †¢ Visual Damage †¢ Presence of Seal Any further checking required eg Seal number, CSC plate validity etc or further action like placing of seal or placard is chargeable as per Tariff. D-3. 6 Reporting ARJ Planning Department will update the shipping line with the ETC before and after start of vessel operation and advice the vessel and The Port Authority 2 hrs notice prior to vessel departure. Once vessel planning is completed ARJ will forward a BAPLIE to the ves sel.An updated BAPLIE will be delivered minimum 1/2 hour before completion of cargo operations. ARJ is able to provide the shipping line with EDI Load Confirmation Messages (COARRI) at frequencies agreed to with the shipping line. In addition to the EDI information a recap of the final load and a confirmed load list (CLL) will be sent to the Shipping line via E-mail earliest after vessel departure. In case of EDI failure ARJ will provide the shipping line with a Bay Plan of the load condition upon request.Any urgent or critical matters relating to discrepancies in reporting are to be addressed with the ARJ Planning Department D-3. 7 Short-Shipped Container When a container is reported as short-shipped, ARJ Planning Department will contact the shipping line. Information will be provided as follows: †¢ Container ID †¢ Vessel / Voyage †¢ Port of Discharge †¢ Stowage position stated for the container †¢ Reasons for Short-Shipping D-3. 8 Over-Shipped Container Wh en a container is reported as over-shipped, ARJ Planning Department will contact the shipping line.Information will be provided as follows: †¢ Container ID †¢ Vessel / Voyage †¢ Container Operator for the over-shipped container †¢ Status (full / empty) †¢ Category (export / transhipment) †¢ Stowage Position (if available) †¢ IMO Details †¢ Reefer Details †¢ Reasons for Over-Shipping D-4 Yard Inventory ARJ Planning Department will provide the shipping line with weekly Yard Inventory Reports for all laden and empty containers. In addition ARJ will also provide on a weekly basis a list of laden containers in the yard, which do not have a nominated on carrying vessel or POD.The shipping line will verify the missing details and revert with an update within 24 hrs of having received the input from ARJ. Any re-nomination or COD is chargeable as per Tariff. D-5 Vessel Bunkering, Repair, and Supply of Provision Vessel bunkering, repair and provisi oning activities have to be communicated to ARJ Planning Department at least 48 hrs before arrival of the vessel. These activities are only allowed after approval of ARJ and are subject to safety and security procedures issued by the Port.These activities should not delay the vessel stevedoring operation and must be completed within the operational working time of the vessel unless otherwise agreed. Only in exceptional cases may the stevedoring operations be stopped or the vessel port time extended because of these activities. Section E – Break Bulk and Over Dimensional Cargo E-1 Requirements The Shipping line is expected to provide information at least 48 hrs in advance of the vessel arrival to the ARJ Planning and Operations Department on any break-bulk activity on vessels that is planned at ARJThe following Information has to be provided: †¢ Arrival / Ongoing transportation via water / via land †¢ Handling by Container Gantry Crane / External Crane †¢ Piece count †¢ Measurements †¢ Cargo Description †¢ Weight †¢ Position on Vessel †¢ Complete description including sketches, diagrams, photographs etc in jpeg / bmp format †¢ Customs Approval Confirmation For over dimensional unitised cargo, the shipping line is expected to provide a complete Out of Gauge manifest as part of the documentation submitted for a vessel call.Undeclared, wrongly declared, poorly stowed or incorrectly packaged break-bulk or over dimensional cargo is subject to a fine as per Tariff. Port has the option of measuring and/or weighing the cargo to check the measurements and/or weight. The Port will provide warehouse for storing this cargo if required at no additional charge subject to availability. Any other equipment required for yard handling will be chargeable as per Tariff. Loading or Discharging and Quay Handling will be charged as per the applicable charges of the Tariff.Free time will apply as per the tariff for over dimensional c ontainers, and storage charges will apply as per the tariff for over dimensional containers based on the length. E-2 Restrictions Waterside handling restrictions are always subject to specific approval from ARG Planning and Operations Departments but approximately are as under: Dimensions Height Length Width Weight 10 m 18 m 6 m 65 MT Shipping lines are expected to taken to take approval from the terminal prior acceptance of bookings involving break-bulk and over dimensional cargoes.Section F – Direct Deliveries For exceptional cases there exists a possibility for accepting or delivering containers under the hook for direct loading / discharging. For safety reasons this activity will have to comply with ARJ Rules and Regulations. The Port should be advised at least 24 hrs before the arrival of the vessel at the Pilot Station of any planned direct delivery containers. The following information should be provided: †¢ Container ID †¢ Time of delivery †¢ Contents o f the container †¢ Hazardous Details (IMO Class, UN No. and Manifests as required Port of Salalah will inform the Line about the expected time of loading or discharge of the container. The requested direct delivery has to be confirmed to ARJ three (3) hrs before arrival of the vessel. Section G – Dangerous Cargo The shipping line bears the full responsibility for compliance to all rules and regulations governing the handling and transportation of Dangerous Cargo. Packing, labeling, declaration, stowage and documentation have to comply with the IMDG Rules and Regulations for Sea Containers as well as local laws and any directions given by local and Port Authorities.The Dangerous Cargo Manifest has to be provided to ARJ Planning Department at least 24 hrs before vessel arrival. The Line is responsible for content and sufficiency of the manifest. ARG will stow dangerous cargo container on the vessel as per instructions from the Line. Dangerous cargo containers pay additiona l charges for loading and discharging as per Tariff. Handling dangerous goods containers belonging to IMO classes 1 and 7 require special attention and permissions from the terminal and other competent authorities.Dangerous cargoes requiring special handling will be entitled to reduced free-time as compared to normal containers and will be subject to separate storage rates as per Tariff. Section H – Leakage / Spillage of Cargo Leakage of cargo contents from a container can be reported either by the shipping line on receiving information from the vessel or by ARJ staff while they are handling it in the terminal. On being made aware of a leakage, the shipping line will immediately advise its nominated surveyor to carry out a survey of the leaking container in conjunction with ARJ Health, Safety, Security ; Environment Department.On receiving the surveyor’s report, the shipping line will be responsible for taking necessary steps to arrange for re-packing of cargo through third party contractors or alternatively for cross-stuffing of cargoes, as per the advice received from the surveyor. Onward movement of such cargo from ARJ will be strictly subject to clearance from ARJ, that the leakage has been stopped and container is cargo and sea worthy for onward transport. Spillage of cargo will be solely on account of the shipping line as will a penalty charge applied as per tariff till corrective action is taken to stop the leakage.Section I – Container Freight Station Activities ARJ has capabilities for container cargo rework, cross stuffing and CFS activities. Arrangements can be made via the CFS Co-ordinator. Section J – Weighbridge Port has a weighbridge and shipping line can issue instructions for any container to be weighed at charges as per tariff. Section K – Miscellaneous Services Port can offer various services such as sweeping containers, fitting or removing tarpaulins, knocking down ends of flatbeds, bundling flatbed contai ners, applying or removing placards, fixing seals etc, all of which are chargeable as per tariff.Section L – Damage and Claims The Damage ; Claims Section of ARJ is responsible for dealing with damages caused to the shipping line’s equipment, its vessels or to port facilities, equipment or its personnel. L-3 Damage Caused by Third Parties If damage is caused to containers or vessels by parties other than ARJ, then ARJ will undertake repairs only at the specific request of the shipping line at its risk and account. L-4 Damage to Port Facilities/Equipment/PersonnelThe shipping line will be fully responsible for all costs and consequence arising due to any damage caused by it, to port facilities, equipment or personnel. Section M – Longstanding Cargo Consignments remaining in the port in excess of the following periods will be subject to auction. Any cargo, for which the respective Port and Customs charges have not been paid will be considered frustrated and may be auctioned and sold by ARJ after the following time periods: †¢ One Month – Refrigerated Containerized Cargo and other cargo considered perishable Three Months – All other Containerized Cargo Section N – Reefer Containers Live reefers will be plugged and unplugged as a standard activity in the stevedoring operations subject to availability of connections, at the temperature setting advised by the Line. Reefer monitoring and maintenance is carried out by the Container Service section of the Maintenance Services Department, and is chargeable as per tariff (charge includes electric supply). Monitoring of reefer containers is carried out at least every 8 hrs and any faults will be immediately reported to the Line.Export reefers can be pre-cooled if required and electric supply/monitoring charges commence from the time of plug-in. The Port can arrange PTI (Pre-Trip Inspection) of reefer containers and also can retrieve temperature data from the reefer data logge r, both activities chargeable as per Tariff. Section O – Port Safety and Security O-1 Rules ; Regulations ‘The Port of Salalah Rules ; Regulations’ is issued by the Port Authorities and applies to all users of the Port. The complete document is available on the Port of Salalah Website. Container Terminal Operational Guidelines Issued 1 stMarch 2007 30 O-2 International Ship and Port Security (ISPS) The Port of Salalah is certified as fully compliant with all requirements laid down under the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS). All vessel operators are expected to fulfil requirements pertaining to their role as specified in the ISPS Code. O-2. 1 ISPS Measures by Port of Salalah Port of Salalah has designated a Port Facility Security Officer (PFSO) and a Deputy PFSO (DPFSO) as point of contact for all issues pertaining to ISPS rules and regulations for the Port of Salalah. O-2. 2 ISPS Requirements for the Line Shipping Agents must submit ISPS vessel certification, ETA of the vessel, Crew list, estimated port stay and last 10 ports of calls to the Port Control 48 hrs prior to vessel arrival. This information is to be sent to [email  protected] com †¢ The Ships Security Officer must submit a completed Declaration of Security (DOS) of the vessel through the shipping agent to the Port Security Officer for endorsement upon berthing. †¢ Enquiries on the Port Security Level are to be directed to HSSE department. †¢ All users of port facilities must display facility passes at all times while at the facility.To apply for pass, please contact the HSSE department †¢ Port users must stop at all facility access control for Security check. Any violation will result in rejection of facility access †¢ For further information / clarification please feel free to contact the Port Facility Security Officer. Tel. 968 23219500 ext 466 / 409 / 406 O-3 X-Ray Inspection of Containers Port of Salalah has modern X-Ray sc reening facilities, and in case any container is required to be screened, the Line should advise the Port who will make the necessary arrangements, which is chargeable as per Tariff.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Kidney Dialysis Essay

The kidney has two important functions for the body because it is connected to the body’s blood flow, it can help monitor blood pressure and secrete hormones, which can raise blood pressure in the event when it does not receive enough blood flow. However the most important job is filtration of blood. The kidney works to filter out toxins, especially chemicals that are formed as a result of cells using energy. The kidneys also work to maintain the balance of electrolytes within the body which can be lost during exercise. Cells need a good balance of electrolytes such as sodium and potassium within the body. If one kidney fails the other one is enough to maintain the body however if both fail to work it is a major issue and it causes problems as the kidney cannot filter the blood. How does a renal dialysis work: A dialysis machine tries to mimic some of the functions of a normal human kidney. One of the jobs of a kidney is to remove urea and some salts from the blood so they can leave the body in the urine. In a dialysis machine, blood from the patient runs through tubes made of a semi-porous membrane. Outside the tubes is a sterile solution made up of water, sugars and other components. Red and white blood cells and other important blood components are too large to fit through the pores in the membranes this acts like the glomerlus in the bowman’s capsule where ultra filtration takes place, but urea and salt pass through membranes into the sterile solution and are removed, this is what happens in a normal functioning kidney the small molecules can pass through the glomerlus but proteins and cells cannot as they are too large. What is haemodialysis: Kidney failure, whether it is permanent or temporary, is mostly treated using renal dialysis, which kind of replaces the kidneys filtration function. One form of renal dialysis is called hemodialysis. With hemodialysis, the patient’s blood is run through a machine with a special filter that helps clean out the waste products. Once the blood has been filtered, it is allowed to return to the body. One of the difficulties of hemodialysis is that it takes place at special medical centres and we are short of machines. This means that the patient has to visit three times per week that lasts between three to five hours per session, this takes up a lot of time. What is peritoneal dialysis: Peritoneal dialysis is the other main form of renal dialysis. With peritoneal dialysis, a sterile cleansing fluid called dialysis solution is injected into the abdominal cavity. The abdominal cavity is lined by a membrane called the peritoneum, which allows the waste products and extra electrolytes to pass through it and travel to the dialysis solution. The dialysis solution also contains a sugar called dextrose, which helps speed the process up. After the solution has sat in the abdominal cavity for four to six hours, it is drained out. This process is repeated four times per day. This type of treatment can take place at home because it makes use of a catheter, which allows the patient to connect a bag of dialysis fluid to a tube that feeds directly into the peritoneal cavity. This treatment allows a person to be a bit more flexible however the patient still needs to do this treatment a few times a day which means it takes up time of a normal persons life. The benefits and risks of a kidney transplant: A kidney transplant is much better than staying on a dialysis machine. A kidney transplant means you can live a normal life, you won’t have to go to the hospital a few times a week to get treated and this wastes time as it takes 2-3 hours on a dialysis machine 3-4 times a week this means that you cannot go away. Someone who’s on a dialysis machine has to give up a lot of time and this may get in the way as they may have to cancel many things during their normal daily life. A kidney transplant gives the body a whole new kidney and works perfectly where as a dialysis machine can only mimic a few of the roles of a kidney. The risks of a kidney transplant are that the body may reject the kidney as it is foreign so a very close tissue match is required. After a person has had a kidney transplant they have to be on drugs for the rest of their life so that the body does not reject the kidney. Kidney transplants can also cause infections or bleeding which can dangerous. Donor cards: A donor card is a card that shows that a person has agreed to give away some  of the organs after they die, and this can be used for transplants. However there are issues, some people believe that it is religiously wrong to give away your organs after you die and this causes a lot of problems. A family member may have given consent to give away their organs when they die but after they die their family members may object and not allow it and this causes a lot of problems. There is a long list for transplants and it is very hard to receive a transplant, donors help quicken this service. In England it is optional to become a donor or not. Another issue may be about race some people will not wish to have an organ from someone else from another race or the donor may not wish to give their organs to someone else from another race or religion and this is another problem that causes delays and means there’s a shortage of donors. Definitions: Ultra filtration: A high pressure filtration through a semipermeable membrane in which colloidal particles are retained while the small sized solutes and the solvent are forced to move across the membrane by hydrostatic pressure forces. Ultrafiltration is a vital process that takes place in the kidneys. With ultrafiltration, large molecules (such as cells and proteins) that are essential are separated or filtered out to be reabsorbed. The ultrafiltrate, in turn, is passed through the proximal tubule, the loop of Henle, the distal convoluted tubule, and a series of collecting ducts to form urine. Osmosis: Diffusion of a solvent (usually water molecules) through a semipermeable membrane from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration. Selective reabsorption: The act or process of absorbing again, as the selective absorption by the kidneys of substances (glucose, proteins, sodium, etc.) already secreted into the renal tubules and their return to the circ ulating blood. Microvilli: Any of the minute hairlike structures projecting from the surface of certain types of epithelial cells, especially those of the small intestine. Co-transport proteins: Facilitated diffusion: Transport of substances across a biological membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration by means of a carrier molecule. Since the substances move along the direction of their concentration gradients, energy is not required. Active transport: A kind of transport wherein ions or molecules move against a concentration gradient, which means movement in the direction opposite that of diffusion – or – movement from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. Hence, this process will require expenditure of energy, and the assistance of a type of protein called a carrier protein. ADH: a peptide hormone released from the posterior pituitary lobe but synthesised in the hypothalamus. There are 2 forms, differing only in the amino acid at position 8: arginine vasopressin is widespread, while lysine vasopressin is found in pigs. Has antidiuretic and vasopressor actions. Used in the treatment of diabetes insipidus. Osmoregulation: The process of regulating water potential in order to keep fluid and electrolyte balance within a cell or organism relative to the surrounding. Counter-current multipliers: Resources used: http://www.livestrong.com/article/75374-renal-dialysis-work-those-kidney/ http://health.howstuffworks.com/medicine/tests-treatment/question17.htm

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

4 of the Most Common LinkedIn Mistakes

4 of the Most Common LinkedIn Mistakes For a rookie LinkedIn user, the site can feel like Facebook 2.0. Oh hey, I know that guy! He fell asleep in 20th Century Topics every week in college! Look, it’s the girl who used to sit by the elevator two jobs ago! Making these not-so-useful â€Å"connections† is often a mistake- as are the other 4 items on this list from Don Goodman over at Careerealism. 1. You don’t carefully evaluate who you allow as a connection.Do not add the aforementioned connections- be very selective about the add requests you make. Stick to promising contacts in your industry or people who can recommend you for specific skills. Think of LinkedIn as the opposite of Facebook! Be generous- but honest- in your recommendations, too.2. You didn’t pick your profile picture with care.Your profile definitely has a higher chance of being viewed with a photo. Choose one that is friendly, professional, and approachable. Give special scrutiny to the background- don’t have someone tak e a terrific pic with a sloppy couch behind you!3. Your sub-header doesn’t â€Å"talk.†The sub-header is an underused tool by many LinkedIn users. What a recruiter will see is your name and a headline, like â€Å"Associate Editor, ABC Magazine†. That’s fine if you have a job and you’re happy in it, but consider something more descriptive, like â€Å"Healthcare Marketing Pro and Medical Marketing Advisor†- it gives a sense of your experience, your specialties and your range.4. You haven’t adjusted your privacy settings.I try to keep my Facebook to people I know and trust. Anyone else gets sent to an â€Å"acquaintance† list, and I keep a close eye on the audience for each update and notification. Give the same attention to your LinkedIn; the privacy settings on your profile should be more publicly accessible, but any activities relating to job-hunting, like connecting with recruiters or getting recommendations from current colle agues, should be kept private from your current employer (for obvious reasons).When in doubt, have a friend look over your profile while they’re logged in to their own to make sure that only what you want displayed is visible!