Thursday, October 31, 2019
High-Risk Nutritional Practices Paper First Draft - Essay Example de the lack of constant exercising, proper hydration, and continuous cleanliness, as well as participation in general medical checkups and examination. In this regard, there are a host of factors that inevitably result in the lack of or limitation of access to proper nutritional value and health. When delving into the aspect of culture and traditional affiliations, it is critical to note that a majority of cultural practices and/ traditions and essentially linked to the religious aspects of given social settings. Therefore, the need to be considerate of religious input with regard to cultural practices pertaining to nutritional intake and practice is vital (Grant, 1998). The paper will delve on the influences of cultural ideals and practices, on various populationsÃ¢â¬â¢ dietary/ nutritional intake. Focus will be on the existing influential factors as well as co-relative factors founded on cultural perspectives and practices. This will encompass prevailing historical belief systems and inclusive practices portrayed, with each culture being explored further in terms of such high-risk behaviors. Within European contexts, the U.S. is often regarded as the Ã¢â¬Ëmelting potÃ¢â¬â¢ of all cultures, religions and ways of life. As Kittler and Sucher (1999) portray, this is best represented by the diversity portrayed and subsequently experienced in the daily life of American citizens, eventually affecting critical aspects such as socialization, nutritional value intake, political affiliations and ideological perspectives. Looking at high-risk nutritional behaviors, it is worthwhile to note that other aspects of socializations i.e. family/ gender roles, age-group category/ bracket, spiritual beliefs, education, health care practices, physical activities, drug and substance abuse, cultural practices and traditions amongst others, fundamentally influence the nutritional behaviors present within different social contexts. In terms of cultural diversity, the U.S. is uniquely
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Martha Stewart Lost Reputation Essay Martha Stewart places her name on her products. She becomes the face of her company and the voice of her brand. When her personal misconduct occurred, she made her company vulnerable and risky as well. This case study examines how Martha Stewart managed her corporate communication when her public image and reputation were tarnished on trial for alleged insider trading scandal. The trial not only led her to prison but also hurt her brand equity. The study shows that StewartÃ¢â¬â¢s early response to her crisis demonstrated lack of situation awareness. In the beginning of her investigation, she kept her public persona intact, ignoring or downplaying her role in it. As a result, what Stewart called Ã¢â¬Å"a small personal matterÃ¢â¬ later became a full -blown crisis. If she had managed her communication in a more timely manner, the magnitude of her crisis might have been minimized. This article also provides detailed insights for organizations to learn from her crisis response strategies. Keywords: Organizational crisis, Crisis communication, Image restoration 1. Introduction The personalities of strong business leaders can help shape and enhance their corporate image. In some cases, the leaders become the virtual icon of the corporate brand, lendi ng their personal prestige to the brand and personifying the company. They can also threaten the company when they are involved in a scandal. In this situation, the consequences for the company can be critical as in the Martha StewartÃ¢â¬â¢s insider trading crisis in the United States. The crisis management scholar, Roux-Dufort (2000) points out that corporate crises as Ã¢â¬Å"a privileged moment during which to understand things differentlyÃ¢â¬ (p. 26). As such, there is a growing body of literature on organizational learning in the wake of corporate crisis (Mitroff, 2002; Shrivastava, 1998). The Stewart case, in particular, drew the attention of media for years. The crisis of Martha StewartÃ¢â¬â¢s insider trading raised the issue about the Martha StewartÃ¢â¬â¢s multiplatform franchise; that is, the media world and homemaking business are intricately interwoven with her persona. StewartÃ¢â¬â¢s empire has an impressive business synergy as shown by her TV programs that promote her magazines, her website which sells her products, and her p roducts which are a link to her TV programs. She is the face, voice and personality behind the brand and, thus, the two Ã¢â¬â Stewart and the brand Ã¢â¬â are inseparable. After StewartÃ¢â¬â¢s personal misconduct, the interlocking nature of her business proved to be vulnerable and risky. Moreover, StewartÃ¢â¬â¢s crisis had both legal and public relations components (Jerome, Moffitt, Knudsen, 2007). Allegations of insider trading against Martha Stewart led to her imprisonment. Her strategic plan in response to the insider trading accusations and the media attention su rrounding this crisis left Stewart trying to take action to restore her image. In a sense, it is important to understand how Stewart herself and her company managed their corporate communication when her public image and reputation were tarnished under the investigation of the insider trading scandal. This article explores how the high profile iconic Martha Stewart responded when confronted with an organizational crisis that threatened existence. It also provides detailed insights for organizations to learn from her crisis response strategies. 2. Background of Martha StewartÃ¢â¬â¢s Insider Trading Beginning with the 1982 publication of her book Entertaining, Martha Stewart made a name for herself as a homemaking diva. In September 1997, Stewart became chairperson, president, and CEO of her new company, Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia. Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia has been listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol MSO since 1999. As the chief of MSO, Stewart used her name and face to make connections with various businesses including a line of housewares, television shows, radio channels, magazines and a series of books on entertaining. On December 27, 2001, Stewart sold 3,928 shares of her ImClone stock worth US$228,000 the day before the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rejected approval of Erbitux, ImCloneÃ¢â¬â¢s anti -cancer drug. By selling ahead of the FDA rejection, Stewart received about US$45,000 more than if she had sold the stocks later. Compared to her wealth, it was certainly an insignificant sum and in fact, during her Larry King Live interview, she said it was Ã¢â¬Å"miniscule, really, about 0.006 percent of my net worthÃ¢â¬ (Four nier, 2004). Stewart had denied any wrongdoing, insisting she did not receive any advance knowledge from Sam Waksal, the founder and CEO of ImClone about the decision on Erbitux (Pollack, 2002). Instead, her sale of ImClone stock was part of a predetermined plan to sell if shares fell below US$60. Later, Stewart was officially indicted on charges of securities fraud and obstructing justice related to her sale of ImClone stock on March 5, 2004. Judge Cedarbaum dismissed the securities fraud charge against S tewart, saying prosecutors had failed to present enough evidence on the issue (Masters White, 2004). However, obstruction of justice, charges of conspiracy, and making false statements remained. Stewart served a five-month prison sentence between October 8, 2004 and March 4, 2005 for these charges. On August 7, 2006, Martha Stewart reached an agreement with the securitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ regulators over the insider-trading civil charges and agreed to pay US$195,000 to settle a five-year legal battle. 3. Literature Review Crisis events can and do strike organizations of all types. Every kind of organization, from larger organizations to small family owned businesses, have the potential of being a victim of crisis (Seeger, Sellnow, Ulmer, 2003). In many circumstances, crisis immediately raises questions from an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s many different publics (Marra, 1998). In this view, for an organization to manage the effects of a crisis it must communicate to both internal and external stakeholders. Ulmer, Sellnow, and Seeger (2007) suggest all crises involve the general communication strategies of reducing uncertainty, responding to the crisis, resolving it, and learning from it. The ability to communicate quickly and effectively is clearly an important component of successfu l crisis management. Effective crisis communication can not only defuse or eliminate crisis, but it can sometimes bring an organization a more positive reputation than before the crisis occurred (Kauffman, 2005). On the other hand, Marra (1998) argues if an organization fails to respond to a crisis in the correct manner, a bad situation can be made worse. Hence, crisis communication strategies can substantially diminish the harm caused by a crisis or magnify the harm if mismanaged. In this study, the stream of crisis response models from communication scholars and public relations professionals (Benoit, 1995; Coombs, 1999, 2007) are utilized as the theoretical framework to interpret the crisis response strategies that Martha Stewart employed in her insider trading crisis. According to Benoit (1995), firms or individuals may take preventative and restorative approaches to image problems. Five strategies (i.e., denial, evasion of responsibility, reduction of the offensiveness of the act , corrective action, and mortification) make up the rhetoric or image repair discourse. Each of these strategies has a set of tactics within them. Denial is the strategy employed when the rhetor simply chooses to deny the actions he is being accused of or shift the blame from the organization to outside individuals or agencies. The second strategy is evasion of responsibility is the strategy that the rhetor can blame circumstances beyond his control. It consists of four possible tactics: provocation, defeasibility, accident and good intentions. BenoitÃ¢â¬â¢s third major image restoration strategy, occurs when the rhetor attempts to reduce the degree of offensiveness experienced by the accuser. To this end, Benoit includes six tactics: bolstering, minimization, differentiation, transcendence, attacking the accuser, and compensation. The fourth category of the typology is corrective action, which attempts to correct the situation rather than counterbalance it. The final image restoration strategy, mortification, requires the rhetor to take responsibility for the action and to issue an apology. Benoit and colleagues have applied the model to a variety of different crisis situations. For instance, Benoit and Brinson (1994) analyzed ATTÃ¢â¬â¢s defense following an interruption of its long-distance service in New York in September of 1991. Initially, ATT tried to shift blame to low-level workers. As the complete story emerged, however, ATT apologized for the interruption (mortification) and began to bolster its image by stressing its commitment to excellence, the billions of dollars invested in service, and the quality of its employees. Finally, ATT promised corrective action and introduced a comprehensive review of its operations to anticipate and prevent further problems. It also stressed its commitment to providing excellent service and its willingness to spend billions of dollars to do so. Given these corrective action strategies, ATTÃ¢â¬â¢s finally restored its image. Benoit (1995) also examined Union CarbideÃ¢â¬â¢s response to the Bhopal, India, gas leak that kille d thousands and injured hundreds of thousands. Union CarbideÃ¢â¬â¢s primary strategies, bolstering and corrective action, were focused on four specific actions: a relief fund, an orphanage, medical supplies, and medical personnel. Although these strategies were appropriate and timely, Benoit claimed that Union Carbide failed to address the most important question: What were they doing to prevent another tragedy? Coombs (1999, 2007) develops situational crisis communication theory, creating 10 categories of basic organizational crisis communication strategies. These strategies are further grouped into four posture: 1) Ã¢â¬Å"denial postureÃ¢â¬ including attack the accuser (confronting person claiming a crisis occurred), denial ( asserting no crisis), and scapegoat (shifting the blame to others outside the organization), with an attempt to eliminate the crisis by denying its existence or the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility for the crisis; 2) Ã¢â¬Å"diminishment postureÃ¢â¬ which takes the forms of excuse (denying intend to do harm or claiming inability to control) and justification (minimizing severity of damage) with the purpose of weakening the link between the crisis and the organization by claiming the crisis is not the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s fault; 3) Ã¢â¬Å"rebuilding postureÃ¢â¬ of compensation (providing money or other gifts to the victims) and apology (taking full responsibility), which strives to restore legitimacy by seeking public approval and forgiveness; and 4) Ã¢â¬Å"bolstering postureÃ¢â¬ which includes reminder (telling stakeholders about its past good works), ingratiation (praising stakeholders and/or reminds them of past good works) and victimage (reminding stakeholders that the organization is a victim of the crisis, too). Using CoombsÃ¢â¬â¢s typology of crisis response strategies, Wilcox and Cameron (2006) examined the case of Intel. In 1993, Intel initially denied there was a problem with its Pentium 586 chip. As the crisis was covered in the mainstream press, Intel used the justification strategy by assuring that the problem was not serious enough to warrant replacing the chips. It minimized the concerns of consumers. In fact, Intel mismanaged the handling of its crisis communication. First, it did not disclose to the public the information about the Pentium flaw when they initially realized there was a problem. Then when the problem finally did come out into the open, they downplayed it instead of helping the users who had purchased the flawed chips. After considerable damage had been done to IntelÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation and IBM had suspended orders for the chip, Intel took corrective action to replace the chips. Subsequently, Andy Grove, IntelÃ¢â¬â¢s president, issued a full apology. Based on BenoitÃ¢â¬â¢s image repair theory and CoombsÃ¢â¬â¢s typology of crisis response st rategies, the following research questions are posited: RQ 1. What strategies did Martha Stewart use to manage her insider trading crisis? RQ 2. Were these strategies effective or ineffective? RQ 3. What can we learn from Martha Stewart case? 4. Methodology The case study is employed in this study, as it is effective in illustrating public relations management in real situations (Hendrix, 2004). According to Yin (1994), the six sources of evidence that are typically associated with the case study include documents, archival records, interviews, direct observation, participant -observation, and physical artifacts. In this study, texts documenting StewartÃ¢â¬â¢s discourse in response to incidents that threatened her image were collected from multiple sources. Specifically, this study used predominantly two types of data: documents and archival records. It began with gathering data and finding facts related to cases and defining the specific tasks. The actions and communication strategies used by Martha Stewart wer e reviewed with information from her corporate websites, press releases and media coverage. MSO is a publicly traded company. A look at the organizational archival records (e.g., stock prices, sales and annual reports) and official government records (e.g. , court records and commission reports) contributed to understand the impact of corporate scandals have had on the companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ financial performance and their stakeholders. The media coverage on the Martha Stewart case was found through Lexis Nexis Academi c keyword search of Ã¢â¬Å"Martha Stewart insider tradingÃ¢â¬ in The New York Times and The Washington Post. These newspapers were selected because of their large circulation, prominence and influence on public opinion. For the purpose of the valance of news narration in this study, the period of analysis covered two time frames (during the crisis and post crisis). The first time frame started from the trading day to the verdict, beginning in December, 2001 and running through March, 2004. The second time frame started from the day of sentencing to her release from prison, beginning on July 16, 2004 and running t hrough March 2005. Since the research questions of this study were related to crisis communication strategies, the unit of analysis of this case study was Martha StewartÃ¢â¬â¢s response to stakeholders during and post crisis. Thus, the strategies were apparent through the types of evide nce. 14 By examining corporate communication employed by Martha Stewart during the crisis and post -crisis period, the procedures for analysis involved three steps. First, after the data were collected from multiple sources, a detailed timeline of relevant events leading up to the crisis itself, and the post-crisis process was created. For example, the chronological order of the Martha Stewart case was constructed in the following manner: 1) the investigation (January, 2002 June, 2003); 2) indictment (June Ã¢â¬â December, 2003); 3) verdict (January May, 2004); 4) sentencing (June Ã¢â¬â July, 2004); 5) in prison (October, 2004); and 6) release from prison (March, 2005). Second, after the chronological order of actual events was refined, a narrative description and process analysis of each event was thus constructed. A worksheet served as an organizing tool for evaluating each event. All data collected were analyzed using the typology of crisis response strategy. Finally, a thick descript ion and analysis of the findings of each research question was conducted. 5. Analysis of Martha StewartÃ¢â¬â¢s Crisis Response Strategies 5. 1 Investigation The story about Martha StewartÃ¢â¬â¢s ImClone stock sale was broken to the public in the Wall Street Journal on June 7, 2002 (Adams Anand, 2002). In the article, her lawyer, John Savarese, indicated that Stewart had set the price at US$60 for selling the stock but in fact, as of June 7, 2002, the stock price of ImClone sank to a low US$8.45 a share. Using the strategy of differentiation, Savarese further was trying to put distance between Stewart and Sam Waksal. There is absolutely no evidence whatsoever that she spoke to Sam, or had any information from anybody from ImClone during that week Ã¢â¬ ¦ I am absolutely sure that there was no communication of any kind between her and Sam, no passing of any information from him to her. (Adams Anand, 2002, p. B2) On June 12, 2002, Waksal was arrested for insider trading and soon after, the stock price of MSO plunged 12 percent, closing at US$15. From June 6, 2002, when congressional investigators started looking into StewartÃ¢â¬â¢s sale of ImClone shares, the stock price of MSO had dropped 22 percent. Stewart immediately denied any insider trading or wrongdoing and, in a public statement, she said she knew nothing about the pending FDA announcement. She claimed that when the share price dropped below US$60 Ã¢â¬â the level at which she had agreed with her broker Ã¢â¬â she returned a call from her broker and sold the s hares on December 27, 2001. She acknowledged that after the trade, she immediately called Waksal but could not reach him, and he did not call her back. The message she left read: Ã¢â¬Å"Martha Stewart called. Something is going on with ImClone and she wants to know whatÃ¢â¬ (Hays, 2002a, p. C1). She proclaimed her innocence in her statement: Ã¢â¬Å"In placing my trade, I had no improper information. My transaction was entirely lawfulÃ¢â¬ (White, 2002, p. E1). However, the congressional investigator questioned StewartÃ¢â¬â¢s sale, noting that ImClone dropped below $60 at least once before while Stewart owned it (White, 2002). On June 18, 2002, Stewart tried to resolve concerns about her sale of ImClone shares and hired a new lawyer, James F. Fitzpatrick, who submitted several documents to congressional investigators. This was the first time Stewart used a strategy of corrective action as a response to the inquiries. On June 19, 2002, MSO stock rebounded sharply, climbing from US$2.05, to US$14.4 and then to US$16.45, suggesting that her corrective action was working. However, Ken Johnson, a spokesman for the House Energy and Commerce Committee, said the documents would help answer some questions but Ã¢â¬Å"we still donÃ¢â¬â¢t have an answer to the most nagging one: was Ms. StewartÃ¢â¬â¢s pre-existing agreement to sell reached in late November, as she says, or in mid-December as some reports have indicated?Ã¢â¬ (Hays, 2002b, p. C7). On June 25, 2002, she appeared on CBSÃ¢â¬â¢s The Early Show, and when asked by the host, Jane Clayson, about the ImClone shares during a cooking segment, she replied while slicing a cabbage with a big knife. IÃ¢â¬â¢m involved in an investigation that has very serious implications. I have nothing to say on the matter. IÃ¢â¬â¢m really not at liberty to say. And as I said, I think this will be resolved in the very near future and I will be exonerated of any ridiculousness. And I just want to focus on my salad because that is why weÃ¢â¬â¢re here. (Clayson, 2002) Apparently, Stewart had no idea how to handle the situation and was unwilling to respond to the questions. She continued to dodge public inquiries and ignored the increasing outcry for answers about her role in the insider trading scandal.
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Piagets Cognitive Theory Children And Young People Essay b. The basic concept of Piagets theory of cognitive development. As we know, the famous theory of cognitive development was found by Jean Piaget. He was born in 1896 (Newkirk, 2009). Newkirk also mentioned that Piaget was a theorists and also a biologist. Besides,the author reported that Piaget did observing his own children and attracted to changes that occured and developed in childrens mind and the factors behind these changes. In addition, Gartrell (2011) also stated that Piagets method by questioning the children is called as clinical method. Children started to develop their understanding through their surrounding based on four stages of cognitive development. As mentioned by Gartrell the stages are the sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete operational stage and lastly formal operations stage. The first stage is sensorimotor stage which starts when the babies were born until age of 2 years old while second stage starts around the age of 2 to 7 years (Santrock, 2011). The author also claimed about the other stages, that are the third stage, concrete operational stage which lasts from 7 until 11 or 12 years old and lastly moving to the fourth stage is formal operations stage. Compared to the other three stages earlier which involving babies and children, this last stage is involving with the adolescence and adulthood. This is the highest stage in cognitive development because this is where a person can make such reasoning and hypothesis (Santrock, 2011) for example, not only concrete events but also towards abstract events such as feelings or inferencing scientific experiments. Furthermore, Santrock (2011) proposed that there are two basic tendencies that will go together with these four stages, which are organization and adaption. Ormrod (2011) stated that organization is possibility of a person to handle their process of thinking. It is also called as schemes which means the building block of intelligent behavior. Next, adaption is the process of an individual to adapt to the environment (Ormrod, 2011). In the same way, Ormrod stated that there are two basic processes in adaption which are assimilation and accommodation. According to Krause, Bochner and Duchesne, cognition is the mental processes involved in perceiving, attending to, understanding and recalling information (2007, p43). Piagets theory of cognitive is underline into the consciousness of mind and thinking. As children are developing, their way of thinking started to change from time to time accordingly to the four stages. Piaget was not really interested into the knowledge having by the children but he was more fascinated by the way of children think, observe their surrounding and how they express it into speeches (Krause et al., 2007). The authors too found that Piaget and his theory are important because he is the first theorists that came out with such theory about development of children from the aspect of cognitive and his idea is still be using untill now even though it has been years. c. Discuss how the Piagets theory apply to child development. Self development is very important in childrens life because it develop in them while they are growing up. In Piagets theory of cognitive development, he focused of four stages of children development that are, sensorimotor stage as the first, secondly is preoperational stage, next concrete operational stage and last but not least formal operations stage. As explained earlier, sensorimotor stage is occured from the birth untill the age of 2 years. According to Krause et al.,(2007), infants in this stage will begin to develope their reflexes by doing some motor activities and senses. They are trying to understand the world around them. For example, infants will show happy expression or laughing when we are teasing and cuddling with them, this shows that infants started to make sense things around them but with limited abilities because it is only based on what they get through their senses. In sensorimotor, there are sub-stages that divided into 6 categories, that are reflexes, primary circular reactions, secondary circular reactions, coordination of reactions, tertiary circular reactions and early representional thought (Brenda, 2010). The first sub-stage is reflexes, according to Brenda (2010) this sub-stage is occured from the birth of the infants until 1 month old. During this stage, infants understand their surrounding by using si mple reflexes for example they will starting to smile. Next, primary circular reactions sub-stage is when the infants are 1 to 4 months. Variety of actions will be perform. For instance, infants are sucking his or her thumb, and as a result they will repeat the same actions because it pleasure them. As it goes on, third sub-stage is secondary circular reactions which occured during 4 to 8 months. Brenda (2010) mentioned in this sub-stage, the infants will be doing the same actions but it extends out to the environment such as replacing sucking their thumbs with rubber toys. In other words the infants are having improvement in their reactions. Moreover, in fourth sub-stage which is coordination of reactions from the age of 8 to 12 months. They will begin to show clear actions and observe others behavior other than starting to develop ability in recognizing the things that had been shown to them. As example, instead of sucking thumb, infants will replace it with their toys. They may s queeze their rubber toys, when it goes mooo mooo, they will get excited and squeeze it again. Krause et al.,(2007) proposed that the infants also will understand that their toys are exist even though they cannot be seen or touch it or called it as object permanance. For example, a doll at first was played by infant, when we put and hide it under blanket the infant will be able to look for it. Infants who do not reach this sub-stage will not be able to look for it, but they will just not realize it. As the infants are growing up to become toddlers, the sub-stages also moving to the next, tertiary secular reactions where occured during toddler age 12 to 18 months. This is the time where toddlers will learn the concept of trial-error experiments with the purpose of getting attention (Brenda, 2010). Specifically, one of the activity might be doing by toddlers is hitting fork and spoon on the dining table, just to know what will happen, what sound will come out, and what are the reaction s they will get from others. Krause et al. called this process as goal-directed or intentional action (2007, p46). Last but not least sub-stage is early representional talk, from the toddlers at age of 18 until 24 months old (Krause et al., 2007). Based on the authors, this last sub-stage is where we can see the toddlers start to imitate others. During this stage, people around them need to be careful and only if possible showing them the good side especially their parents. This is because since parents are the closest people in toddlers life, they will observe what their parents are doing. For example, if the mothers usually sweeping the house at the morning, the toddlers will observe it and will do the same action of sweeping the house even though it is without the broom. As I experienced this too, during my visits to my aunties home, she has a 19 months old toddlers. I realized that her child keep following my way of reading magazines and drinking coffee from my mug. Even though the objects are not with the baby, but she followed my actions. In my opinion, parents need to get close with toddler to help their growth and try to play game with them such as peek-a-boo game because this will help the children to strenghten their object-permanance ability and moving to the next stages as Piaget had observed. The second stage that apply to child development is preoperational stage, which occured within the age of 2 to 7 years old. Newkirk (2009) proposed that children in this stage will develop from several aspects. They will be more capable in the usage of language skills for instance they can explain the objects by replacing it with pictures or words. But they still not be able to speak like adult, they can at least use one or two-words sentences to delivered messages. According to Newkirk, imagination level of children in this stage will usually increase and they are more curious to all things instead of being logical. Unlikely the first stage, in this second stage children will spend more of their time by putting role while they are playing. For instance, children always pretend a box is a house for them to shelter. Even myself experienced that during my childhood. I built my so-called home by using boxes and I create my own family members using my dolls to stay in that house, I even pretend cooked meals for my family. This prove that childrens imagination during this stage is very high but they still need supervision from parents in case they are exposed to unappropriate elements. Krause et al. (2007) noted that there are three main characteristics of preoperational stage which are egocentrism, centration and animism. The author define egocentric as the person who is unable to share another persons idea or view because the person considered that all view are the same with he or she. Piagets had done with the Three Mountain Tasks model experiments, and as the result the children expects that the person on other side of the model is seeing the same view as them (Krause et al., 2007). Next is centration, the authors described the meaning as the children focus on one feature of problems while ignoring other features. For example, children will not understand if we tell them Your sister is my daughter because their ability is limited. Moving on, the last characteris tic is animism. In this characteristic, the authors claimed that children belief that all things have lives. They considered inanimate objects have emotions and feelings like them. For example, a girl who age 3 years old always talk with her teddy bear as the teddy bear is alive and answers her. Piagets third stage in child development is concrete operational stage which is from the age of 7 to 11 years (Santrock, 2011). During this stage, children are able to logically think about the concrete events and starting to eliminate their egocentrism which means they started to learn to view others perspective too. Even though they are getting capable in the usage of logic but they still having the difficulty in understanding the hypothetical concepts (Krause et al., 2007). The authors also claimed that there are several processes in this stage that involve in child development, that are reversibility where the children have the ability to think about the reverse event such as in mathematical solving problems where they need to add and subtract and add it back, secondly is seriation which menas the ability to mentally put things in order according to its features for example size, weight, and height. Next is compensation, where the children have the ability see that something is i ncrease because of something is decrease such as the height is increasing because of the width s decreasing and vice versa. Besides, the fourth is classficiation which means the ability that children have to name and identify the sets or group of the objects by its features such as size, colours and appearance. Class inclusion is the fifth processes mentioned by the authors which bring the meaning of ability to understand that a small amount of groups can be combine to form a large group as Krause et al. called it as multiple classification (2007, p53). For example a car can be include into its brand name such as Proton or under large group of vehicles. Last but not least the processes found by Krause et al. (2007) is conservation, whereby children at last know that quantities, or lenghts are not related at all to the arrangement or appearance of the things. For example, a child is presented with two same sized of bowls filled with flour, but when one of the full bowl flour is pour into jar with different sized he and she or he will still know that the quantity of the flour is the same either it is in bowl or jar. Lastly, the fourth stages in Piagetian is formal operations which occur to 11 years old children and beyond (Santrock, 2011). As we can see, this is the highest level of child development in Piagets theory as it goes until our adulthood. Santrock stated that in this stages people continue to develop ability of thinking with presence of abstract concept. Logically, children begin to take notes about the possibility of the consequences of every events they experienced and also started to think in a formal way. Besides, Krause et al. (2007) suggested that children in this stage are already know how to use deductive and inductive reasoning. As the author define deductive reasoning as the potentiality of children to use a general principle to determine a specific outcome, on the other hand inductive reasoning is using and observing specific outcome to include general principles. In this final stage also children will develop their problem solving activities. When entering adoloscence, the y are able to do systematic planning in their life and also make a hypothesis, inference far better than stages before (Brenda, 2010). Overall, that are the four stages that involve in child development until adolescence. d. Discuss how the Piagets theory apply children in preschool and early primary levels. Preschool children are basically who are still develop their cognitive abilities in stage two, preoperational. As stated by Krause et al. (2007) regarding applying Piagets theory into preschoolchildren who are still in stage two, there will be at least two parties that involved in helping to apply this cognitive theory to children firstly parents, secondly educators or teachers.Moreover, by introduce to children this concept means we are letting them to be independent and explore their world by themselves. Preschool children who are basically age between 4 to 6 years are in preoperaional stage. As I explained in previous sub-questions, children in this stage has become more capable in obtaining language skills and using it to represent objects but still limited because they cannot reached the events where explanation need to relate with concrete logic. Firstly as parents, they must give freedom to their children especially preschool children to play with their friends since children in this stage will spent more of their time with playing (Krause et al., 2007). Nowadays, majority of parents always having misconceptions, they think that they cannot let their children play too much, in fact they should not too strict in controlling their children. What parents should do is by letting their children play with their friends but make sure to supervision who are their friends. Logically, according to Krause et al., by giving children chance to play, they will explored their world while inter acting with friends (2007). Create a safe-mode place for them to play so that they feels your attention towards them, during this process children will encounter some problems. This is the right time to let them be independence by solving their problems but with supervision. Even though at first they might not really capable in solving it but it will be better as they go through this process and get knowledge from what we called as hands-on experiences (Krause et al., 2007). Besides, Ormrod suggested that parents should always communicate with their children especially who are in this stage. This is because children may feel left out if their parents are too busy and even do not have time to spend with them. In other way, this also a good opportunities to increas the level of self-esteem of the children. On the other hand, teachers also play an important role in applying preoperational stage towards preschool children. Newkirk found out that since children during this stage will usually be in egocentrism state, they do not realize about other perspectives (2009). So, as a teacher need to know how to handle this situation for example letting the children having conversation with the peers in class will enhance their understanding of others world or teachers can create a questions and answers session with the preschool students. The purpose of doing that is because to increase the self esteem of children and to let them hear others views too so that their level of egocentrism can be decrease. As an educators,creactivity is needed to attract preschool children in learning such as by using visual aids to stimulate the childrens mind (Newkirk, 2009). Examples of visual aids are like bringing props such as the real fruits if teachers want to teach about type of fruits in class. After finis hed teaching, teachers can serve the students with the fruits, and let them have the hands-on experience. The author also did mentioned that in order to develop preoperational stage between the children, use things that are different for examples cue cards written words and ask them to create sentences based on cards that they have or teachers can ask the preschool students to work in a group. In addition, interactions with peers will help the preschool children to improve their cognitive development or it is called as disequilibrium (Ormrod, 2011). Why talking with peers can help the children? This is because, logically the children and peers are at the same age level, so they can be more understanding between their group. How can we know if the children are applying preoperation stage in their cognitive development? Krause et al. (2007) described that the development at each cognitive stages is called as milestones. In this preoperational stage, Krause et al. also reported the childrens milestones development is from the aspect of thinking and language skill whereby they know to replace objects with drawing, words or gestures. As for instance, when children are at shopping mall, they are able to tell their parents by pointing to the things that attract them such as toys and dolls. Besides children also learnt to produce sound for example while they are playing with their soldier toys, they can make sound like dush dush to indicate the soldier toys they are playing with are fighting. In contrast, children who do not develop well in this stage will no be able to differentiate between the living things and inanimate objects. For example, they are treating the real cats and cat doll the same as both have feelings, emotions and know how to feel hungry whereas only the living things can feel all that. In a nutshell, children will reached each stages when the readiness come and they still need to be taught to guide to the right path. Krause et al. (2007) did proposed that teachers and parents should not teach their children the highest level of stages if it is not the right time by means the children are just not ready yet. e. Summary. In conclusion, I agreed with propose suggested by Ormrod (2011), Piagets theory have its own benefits and disadvantegous. As Piagets idea was the first to talk about cognitive development among children, his idea is the famous one and still be used even until today. In my opinion, Piagets theory had changed peoples view about children development. Even though as reported by Newkirk (2009), children development are not always moving from each stage according to the age that Piagets planned, but they still will moving according to the stage either it is fast or late. Last but not least, implementation of cognitive theory in children development is very effective as it will be very helpful towards the children themselves as this theory help to influence children in the aspects of biological maturation, activities, social experiences and equilibration.
Friday, October 25, 2019
Why did we drop the bomb on Hiroshima? There are lots of arguments for and against dropping the bombÃ¢â¬â¢s on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Since the day that that monumental event took place people have debated whether the U.S.A. should have drooped the bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Opinions on whether it was right or wrong differ, an absolutist might say that you are killing so it is wrong. But and a relativist would say that in the long run you would be saving thousands of lives both civilian and military. Is that not what all military leaders strive for? But was it fair to pick a civilian target? Is war between soldiers of a nation or the nations them selves? How you answer these questions dictates what you opinion on this controversial subject is. Why did president Truman drop the bomb and was he right to drop it where he did? Why should the U.S.A. have dropped the bomb? With the end to the Japanese role in the war it would effectively bring the war to an end. After pearl harbour the Americans had been humiliated. The government and the people wanted to see someone pay for the tremendous loss of life in that fateful attack. The bombs where the perfect way to get their own back for that incident at Pearl Harbour and show the world that they were boss and should not be challenged or the consequences would be devastating. It spelled out AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s start of the new dominant military power over every other nation. No one would ever challenge America after they had seen what they where destructive power they were capable of. It would also bring an end to the U.S.AÃ¢â¬â¢s war with Japan. There is also the fact that the Americans had spent millions of dollars to build the bomb. If they did not use it the public would question whether they should pay tax for something like this to be build and never use it. The public unless shown that it was needed would loose faith in their government's choice of spending. But even after The U.S.A. had inflected such a terrible curse On the people of Hiroshima, they droped a second bomb on another Civilians Area with Just as much horror as the first. Inflicting the same death and destruction on thousands more. The second bomb showed that the USA was prepared to continue using such force if the Japanese did not surrender and admit defeat.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
Methods and Meditations on First Philosophy is a discourse by Rene Descartes, which largely focuses on the nature of humanity and divinity. This essay is a discussion of this discourse, and will summarize, explain and object to various parts of his work. The majority of this essay focuses on Descartes Sixth Meditation, which includes his argument that corporeal things do exist. 1. There clearly exists a passive faculty of sensing and I use it involuntarily. 2. If there exists a passive faculty of sensing within me and I use it, then there exists an active faculty of producing sense ideas, either in me, or in something else. 3. Therefore, there exists an active faculty of producing sense ideas, either in me, or in something else. 4. God has given me a great propensity to believe that the active faculty of producing sense ideas is in corporeal things. 5. If the active faculty of producing sense ideas is not in corporeal things then God is a deceiver. 6. God is not a deceiver 7. Therefore the active faculty of producing sense ideas is in corporeal things. 8. If the active faculty of producing sense ideas is in corporeal things then corporeal things exist. 9. The active faculty of producing sense ideas is in corporeal things. 10. Therefore corporeal things do exist. DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ argument that corporeal things exist exemplifies his use of, and basis in epistemological foundationalism. To clearly understand how Descartes argument reflects this, we must first explain what epistemological foundationalism is. In his essay, Epistemology, Richard Feldman explains that foundationalism is when, Ã¢â¬Å"The argument is sound. There are basic justified beliefs, and they are the foundation upon which all our other justified beliefs restÃ¢â¬ (Feldman 51). He continues this line of thought by saying further, Ã¢â¬Å"All justified nonbasic beliefs are justified in virtue of their relation to justified basic beliefs. Ã¢â¬ (Feldman 52). In other words, basic justified beliefs allow for other nonbasic beliefs to be justified through their own justification. And it is only through these basic justified beliefs that one can make sound arguments while using a fundamentalist mentality. The nonbasic justified beliefs that are used for argumentation are true only to the point that their supplemental basic justified beliefs are true. With this understanding of foundationalism through FeldmanÃ¢â¬â¢s work it can be said that Descartes meditations exhibit these features. The argument that Descartes gives for the existence of corporeal things certainly exhibits the features of foundationalism. The method that Descartes used in his meditations was to clearly ground all of his arguments upon basic justified beliefs. This foundation on basic justified beliefs provides Descartes with the ability to come up with further nonbasic justified beliefs, all of which are based upon one of his basic justified beliefs. This is evident throughout DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ argument for corporeal beliefs as he believes that the entirety of his argument lies upon basic justified beliefs. Without the existence of God, Descartes would not be able to justify his beliefs for the existence of corporeal things. The premises that involve God in this argument are all nonbasic justified beliefs, because they all rest upon the foundation that God exits. The justified belief of Gods certain existence that Descartes holds depends upon an argument that does not use any other beliefs. Therefore his conclusion that God exists becomes a basic justified belief for Descartes, and he bases many of his nonbasic justified beliefs upon its foundation. Some of Descartes premises in his argument for the existence of corporeal things clearly rely upon his basic justified belief that God exists. For God to have given Descartes any type of inclination, as Descartes believes is justified in premise four, it is clear that his existence must first be justified. Through his argument for the existence of God, Descartes is able to use his basic justified belief that God exists to affirm his nonbasic justified beliefs through their relation to GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence. This implication that Descartes uses for his reasoning is exemplary of foundationalism. Descartes does not use any beliefs that he does not justify through their dependence upon a basic justified belief. For his sixth premise that God is not a deceiver also depends upon this same basic justified belief for it also to be justified. Descartes criteria for what can constitute a basic justified belief mustÃ also be relevant if the justification of his argument lies upon such beliefs. It seems that the goal of DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ meditations was to begin with a clean slate, and from there, distinguish only things that are certain. Descartes method required him to only accept things as true if they are certain. Through FeldmanÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of foundationalism it is apparent that Descartes method can be considered as such. Descartes primary focus was to find only what is basic, clear, distinct, and justified before further building upon those beliefs. For a belief to be basic for Descartes, it must rely upon no other beliefs. It must then be reliant upon self-evident, completely provable truths to be able to describe which beliefs can be justified through deduction. This is a very basic foundation to begin from and is truly foundationalism at its roots. For DecartesÃ¢â¬â¢ meditations the beliefs that he is a thinking thing and therefore he exists is used from the beginning as his first basic justified belief. The first premise in Descartes argument is a basic justified belief. He believes that there clearly exists a passive faculty of sensing and I use it involuntarily. The second premise of the argument raises questions about how this can be a justified belief. Descartes believe that if there exists a passive faculty of sensing within me and I use it, then there must exist an active faculty of producing sense ideas, either in myself or in something else. Descartes is able to justify this belief that there exists two different faculties of sensing, by using the basic justified beliefs about imagination and understanding and the difference between the two. Namely that understanding goes beyond our ability to imagine something, and Imagination seems to depend upon extended bodies. Through these beliefs Descartes is able to conclude that there must be two different faculties of sense ideas. A passive faculty of perceiving sense ideas within me that I use and an active faculty of producing these sense ideas. There is a problem with DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ foundationalism, however. The problem, for Descartes is that, while everything is based upon each other, if one of the beliefs that provides justification to other beliefs is not clearly justified then none of these beliefs can be taken as truths. This not only shakes these beliefs, but, can question the soundness of his wholeÃ argument and any further nonbasic justified beliefs that may arise from the questioned belief. While his argument is valid and seems to be sound, upon further questioning, it may be possible to find that the argument may not be sound. If enough of a doubt can be provided so that one premise seems doubtful, I believe we can call into question the soundness of his whole argument. For DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ fourth premise, it seems as though his only justification for the belief is an inclination supposedly given from God, who supposedly exists. This inclination is that the active faculty of producing sense ideas is in corporeal things. For Descartes, as a foundationalist, to base his premise off of a natural inclination that he has should seem suspicious enough. Descartes supplements his inclination by stating that it comes from God. This is an opportunity to question the base of this premise. How does Descartes reason that this inclination is given from God. Ã¢â¬Å"For God has given me no faculty at all for recognizing any such source for these ideas; on the contrary, he has given me a great propensity to believe that they are produced by corporeal things. Ã¢â¬Å"Through this statement Descartes attempts to justify his premise for this active faculty existing in corporeal things. While I must agree that as humans, we are born with a propensity to believe that the active faculty of producing sense ideas is in corporeal things, it is possible to see that there could be other ways that we have gotten this propensity. Is it possible that we have received this inclination as a disillusion from a source other than God. At the time, Descartes may have seen this as irrational. But, today it is easier to imagine that this is possible through either superior technology, or through some type of force of mental control. The idea that superior technology is able to supply humans with the active faculty for producing sense ideas can be exemplified through the movie Ã¢â¬Å"The MatrixÃ¢â¬ . In the movie it is a superior technology that controls mankind and projects into their mind that corporeal things are real, when in fact it is just images being projected into their minds that supplies them with what they believe is reality. Not only does Descartes assume that it is God who put this propensity to believe in our minds, but this follows Descartes assumption that God exists. While Descartes has an argument that proves the existence of God, it is possible to argue against the existence of God. If that argument can be objected to, this also would provide more than enough doubt to discount the soundness of DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ argument that corporal things exist. The debate upon the existence of God is not necessary for my objection, however, as I have already provided doubt to the premise even if God does exist. The ability to fathom a different idea than God putting this active faculty in corporal things provides enough doubt that it is possible to question the soundness of Descartes foundationalist argument. How would Descartes defend his view against this objection? I think that the possibility of this, provides a similar problem to that of our dreams. If that would be projected upon us, we still are thinking, and therefore still continue to exist. So there must be some type of reality in which we are centered in. This would lead us to believe that either this Ã¢â¬Å"matrixÃ¢â¬ is reality, or there is some other kind of reality. Since we know that this Ã¢â¬Å"matrixÃ¢â¬ is not reality, there must be some other kind of reality. This makes it difficult for us to understand what reality truly is. The possibility of this makes me think Renee Descartes would have to submit that what he believed as justified truths, can not be so. This thought would not only shake this premise, but would compromise the rest of his argument for the belief that corporeal things exist. With the inability to clearly justify statements he previously believed to be true, I believe that Descartes would have a more difficult time trying to prove that corporeal things exist. I also believe that without this premise, this whole argument looses itÃ¢â¬â¢s soundness because of the dependency upon God being the supplier of our propensity to believe that corporeal things exist. This one belief being no longer justified, in the nature of foundationalism, would necessarily effect the nonbasic justified beliefs of Descartes which previously were believed to be justified. The more beliefs which are no longer justified, work only to further the process and dejustify beliefs dependent upon the previous ones.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Kenned Taylor Evaluator: Angela Moore Title: Pro's and Cons of Abortion What was the thesis statement of the essay? Abortions, an unethical practice of termination should be illegal because it is considered murder, can cause physiological and medical problems, and reduces the number of adoptions. How was the introduction? Did it grab your attention? If so, how? If not, what could have been done differently? The introduction was good and it did grab my attention by showing interesting facts.Did the author make a strong case for their argument? What was the strongest argument that was made? Lacked evidence for the arguments, not strong enough arguments. What was the weakest argument made? Arguments were all kind of weak How well did the author Incorporate: Facts? Yes Anecdotes? No Quotes? There wasn't many quotes In the paper. How well did the author follow the PAP formatting and citation requirements? What could have been done differently? The PAP Format could use a little more work b ut overall it was fine.The reference page needs to be finished. How well did the author do with using correct grammar and punctuation? Were there any specific areas that he or she needs to work on for future papers? (Be specific) There were a few spelling mistakes and the sentences had much grammar (Passive 1 OFF Could you determine a Christian worldview in the paper? If yes, what was it? Yes there was a Christian world view, abortion is a sin. Did the conclusion wrap up the paper without introducing new information? Yes but you need to work on length.